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Haiti Earthquake 2010 - Evaluative resources

 TitleAgenciesDate(s)Resource type
  IDRL in Haiti - A Study on the Legal Framework for the Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Response in HaitiIFRCPublished: January 2012Research, reports and studies

Haiti is party to several international conventions concerning international disaster response. However, although ratified international conventions are self-executing in Haitian law, in practice, the Haitian State has yet to adopt the administrative, legisla- tive and regulatory measures required to implement them.
Current legislation concerning international disaster response is fragmented across various legal instruments, and numerous legal provisions were adopted in an ad hoc manner in the aftermath of the earthquake.
The National Risk and Disaster Management Plan and the Emergency Response Plan are the main instruments for disaster management in Haiti, although they are not legally binding. They must be considered in conjunction with the State of Emergency Law of April 2010 (repealing the State of Emergency Law of September 2008).


  WBG Response to the Haiti Earthquake: Evaluative LessonsWBPublished: 2010Evaluation reports

As Haiti faces the daunting task of recovery after the devastating earthquake, past experiences provide some lessons. Making a crucial difference to the effectiveness of actions seem to be the nature of the immediate response, diagnosis, project design and supervision, use of local capacity, private sector links, coordination among partners, including within the World Bank Group. Many of the lessons from previous episodes are relevant now; yet Haiti's distinct country conditions must also be kept in mind.
Indeed, several factors make the response in Haiti especially overwhelming: the breakdown of social order and a fragile security situation, the near-complete loss of governance structures, and the failure to impose even minimum quality standards on the construction industry. Complicating matters will be the unprecedented scale of the charitable donations earmarked for emergency relief, and the arrival of many agencies new to the country, tending to prioritize unilateral action over coordination.


 'We are here' - IFRC's experience with communication and feedback channels for affected populations in HaitiALNAP, CDA, IFRCPublished: September 2014Research, reports and studies

This case study outlines the IFRC's work in Haiti following the 2010 Earthquake. A distinctive feature in their approach is the use of technology to enhance and expand communication and feedback loops.

It primarily focuses on two-way communication and feedback processes in IFRC’s Return and Relocation Programme, which supports people displaced by the Earthquake to move out from the crowded camps and informal settlements into safe housing.

This resource is part of a larger ALNAP and CDA research project on the effectiveness of feedback mechanisms for affected populations in humanitarian contexts.

 2010 Haiti Earthquake 'Reflections' After Action ReviewCARE InternationalPublished: 2010After action & learning reviews

The main objective of this exercise will be to use our experience in Haiti to help CARE identify shortcomings, recognize good practices, and improve upon CARE's humanitarian policy framework and how CARE International approaches emergency response at a global organizational level in a way that we can apply these lessons to large-scale humanitarian crises we may face in the future. 

 2010 Haiti Earthquake 'Reflections' After Action Review WorkshopCARE InternationalStarted: November 2010After action & learning reviews

Objectives: The main objective of this exercise will be to use our experience in Haiti to help CARE identify shortcomings, recognize good practices, and improve upon CARE's humanitarian policy framework and how CARE International approaches emergency response at a global organizational level in a way that we can apply these lessons to
large-scale humanitarian crises we may face in the future.

Similar to the last organization-wide review undertaken for the 2004 tsunami, it is anticipated that the Haiti Earthquake Reflections Workshop will review:

  1. Roles & relationships: Clarify roles and responsibilities, accountability, coordination, and management oversight.
  2. How successful we were at getting the right people at the right time, including deployment modalities,staffing transitions, etc.
  3. Programme design and absorptive capacity. Emergency preparedness planning, capacity assessments,strategic planning and transition from relief to development
  4. Performance in core sectors (food security, shelter and/or WASH) and integration of cross-cutting issues(gender, DRR, etc.) given that CARE's response needs to be based not only on needs but also on itstechnical and absorptive capacity
  5. How effectively was the transition managed between successive phases (e.g. relief to recovery)
  6. Effectiveness of programme support, humanitarian accountability, fundraising, and media and communications – all of which influence the quality and timelines of an emergency response

Methodology: Workshop: 25 to 35 full-time participants with representation at a managerial and technical level from CARE Haiti, CARE International Members, various functional units of the Lead Member (CARE USA), and the CARE Emergency Response Working Group

Contact: Jock Baker,, and Sarah Ralston,

 8th UK Shelter Forum Hosted by RedR 8th of October 2010, in London.RedRPublished: 8 October 2010Conference, training & meeting documents


Toby Gould and Martin McCann CEO of RedR

Shelter project updates:
Tom Corsellis, Shelter Centre
Joseph Ashmore, Shelter Projects
David Sanderson and Bill Flynn, CENDEP Annie Devonport , DEC

9 months on Haiti:
House building in Haiti, Neill Garvie, Christian Aid
Commercial Partnering to Improve Programme Strategy and Delivery
Ian Pearce, Habitat for Humanity and Victoria Bachelor, Arup.
Legal Rights: Housing Land and Property Rights, and Urbanisation
Kate Crawford, CARE International
Market assessment - Plastic sheeting
Joseph Ashmore, Shelter Project
The impact of the floods on access and availability of bamboo and timber
Rick Bauer, Oxfam.

Group Discussion Topics:
Chaired by Annie Devonport, DEC
A study on ‘Urban Disaster Response’ as a terms of reference, to include a framework for political/social/economic and technical response.
Chaired by Kate Crawford, Care International:
How do we negotiate doing nothing? How do you find out what you should be doing? What is a good solution?
Chaired by John Leach, Shelter Box and Toby Gould, RedR:
Are there enough shelter managers?


 A Review of the IFRC-led Shelter Cluster Haiti 2010IFRCPublished: April 2011Programme/project reviews

 This review draws on desk research, interviews in Haiti and written and telephone communication with informants. It is not an evaluation of the effectiveness of the shelter response following the earthquake of January 2010 although it reflects the opinions of some informants on this issue. The review's primary aim is to identify lessons and provide recommendations for the IFRC and the Shelter Cluster on coordination in future emergencies.

 A Situational Analysis of Metropolitan Port-au-Prince, HaitiUN HabitatPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies

UN-Habitat’s situational analysis of metropolitan Port-au-Prince provides a
thorough background to the city’s situation in terms of urban development
and planning, and presents a way forward for future planning of the
metropolitan area.

This publication makes a case for a participatory approach engaging all
key stakeholders in urban development. Such an approach is especially
needed in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, where municipalities
are asking for support from central government to develop and implement
local planning and to deliver basic services. Another key area is the need
for institutional capacity building to better enable municipalities and their
partners to deliver basic urban services to the city’s residents.

The Citywide Strategic Planning approach presents the key steps for
initiating and implementing a strategic planning process in support of
sustainable urban development. It attempts to address three strategic
planning questions: Where are we today? Where do we want to be? How
do we get there? The publication also covers the wider aspects of housing
and urban infrastructure as well as the socio-economic situation which
constitute key components for achieving sustainable urbanization.

 A Study on Protection and Accountability in Haiti following the Earthquake in January 2010DECPublished: February 2013Research, reports and studies


This report assesses the protection work of member agencies and how they dealt with accountability issues during the earthquake response. It was produced by lead authors Eric James and Julie R. Dargis who are independent consultants and was based on research carried out in and around Port au Prince in Haiti in January 2013. The study reached five main conclusions:

  • NGO staff were aware of the issues and sought practical approaches to providing protection and ensuring accountability.
  • Community representation occurred in some unexpected ways and NGOs should approach community partnerships with a critical eye to local power relations.
  • There was evidence that standards from the Humanitarian Accountability and Sphere projects were being used.
  • NGOs need to more consistent in conducting detailed initial assessments and creating baselines.
  • Definitions of protection are often different between field staff and their home office colleagues, partners or donors and a common understanding is required.

The report highlight examples of what it regarded as good practice such as:

  • ActionAid delivering aid through existing management structures and partnerships to build on local knowledge and capacities.
  • Oxfam monitoring that identified some members of the community were seeking to appropriate cash grants intended for vulnerable children and women, allowing corrective action to be taken.
  • Christian aid built advocacy on preventing sexual abuse and other protection issues into its emergency programmes with local partners.
  • Age International created a network of older volunteers to ensure the most vulnerable older people were able to get a share of the aid being offered by other agencies.


 Accountability to the People We ServeCRSPublished: 2013Factsheets and summaries

Integrated Community Resettlement and Recovery Program


 Adapting to an Urban World - Lessons Learned, Gaps and Priorities (2016)FSC, WFPPublished: 19 April 2016Lessons papers

In 2014, the Adapting to an Urban World project was developed in order to modify assessment methods and tools for urban contexts. The project is co-led by the global Food Security Cluster and the World Food Programme, supported by a Steering Committee made up of cluster partners.

By 2016, with a completed desk review and 5 country case studies, the project has compiled a variety of lessons and recommendations.

A stock taking exercise has been conducted to consolidate the lessons and to identify gaps and priorities. These have been organised by technical area, and resulted in a number of priority action points.

This document is intended for humanitarian practitioners engaged in urban assessments, researchers working on urban specific issues, and donors developing or refining urban strategies.


 Addressing Human Trafficking and Exploitation in Times of CrisisIOM - International Organization for MigrationPublished: December 2015Research, reports and studies

Although human trafficking has gathered momentum and several international organizations have developed approaches to address it, the phenomenon remains a serious crime, with grave human rights concerns, that is largely overlooked in crisis situations. In addition, human trafficking is typically not considered a direct consequence of crisis. This misplaced assumption, coupled with the fact that counter-trafficking efforts are not necessarily understood as an immediate life-saver in crisis, often hampers the humanitarian response to human trafficking cases, particularly in terms of identification of and assistance to victims.

In reality, as this IOM report reveals these efforts are a matter of life and livelihood for victims of trafficking and should therefore be considered with as much priority as for any other crisis-affected population and be addressed at the outset of a crisis. The report recommends that human trafficking in times of crisis be urgently included in the humanitarian community, with support from both emergency and development donor communities.

 Addressing Human Trafficking and Exploitation in Times of CrisisIOM - International Organization for MigrationPublished: July 2015Factsheets and summaries

Although human trafficking has gathered momentum and several international organizations have developed approaches to address it, the phenomenon remains a serious crime, with grave human rights concerns, that is largely overlooked in crisis situations. In addition, human trafficking is typically not considered a direct consequence of crisis. This misplaced assumption, coupled with the fact that counter-trafficking efforts are not necessarily understood as an immediate life-saver in crisis, often hampers the humanitarian response to human trafficking cases, particularly in terms of identification of and assistance to victims.

In reality, as an IOM report reveals these efforts are a matter of life and livelihood for victims of trafficking and should therefore be considered with as much priority as for any other crisis-affected population and be addressed at the outset of a crisis. The report recommends that human trafficking in times of crisis be urgently included in the humanitarian community, with support from both emergency and development donor communities.

This document summarises the key findings of the full report, which is available here.

 After Action Review for UNFPA HaitiUNFPA - United Nations Population FundCompleted: October 2010
Published: October 2010
After action & learning reviews
 An Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis study: Changing Responses to the Haiti EarthquakeOxfamPublished: January 2012Research, reports and studies


2007, and based on the value chain development
framework, the Emergency Market Mapping and
Analysis (EMMA) toolkit was designed to help
staff to understand, work with and support critical
markets in sudden onset emergencies. Oxfam GB
(OGB) and the International Rescue Committee (IRC)
have now used this assessment tool in a number
of emergency responses. This case study looks at
the EMMA that was undertaken in Haiti following
the 2010 earthquake, and the emergency responses
implemented as a result of this, by both the IRC and

 An Independent Final Evaluation of the Action of Churches Together Alliance Haiti Appeal HTI-101 (Jan 2010 - Dec 2011)ACT AllianceCompleted: January 2012
Published: January 2012
Evaluation reports


This evaluation reviewed the work of the Action of Churches Together Alliance from the 2010 Haiti earthquake to November 2011. The external evaluation team found the Alliance response to be a model of an integrated and holistic response based on clear principles of human dignity and respect within the framework of a long-term engagement.


 Ann Kite Yo Pale or Let Them Speak: Best practice and lessons learned in communication in HaitiInternewsCompleted: November 2011
Published: November 2011
After action & learning reviews

The 7.0 magnitude earthquake that struck the south of Haiti on January 12th 2010 triggered the largest humanitarian response since the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004. Hundreds of international agencies launched emergency responses, and local organisations, the Haitian diaspora, the private sector and many thousands of individuals also poured energy, money and time into finding ways to help.
The earthquake was unfortunately not the only serious emergency to strike Haiti in 2010. The outbreak of cholera in the town of St Marc on October 18th 2010 brought a new, highly infectious and deadly disease to a country with weak sanitation and health systems, and no knowledge or understanding of this illness. The response of communication actors from the first hours was essential to the survival of potentially thousands of people, whose ability to recognise symptoms and take prompt action was literally the difference between life and death.
This paper attempts to capture some of the communication work implemented by a whole range of partners, and to identify what was delivered from the perspectives of those affected by these two major but very different emergencies. The purpose of this exercise is to inform the continuing response in Haiti and to provide practical case studies and analysis of best practice models that may be useful elsewhere.

 Approche communautaire en Haïti : décryptage de la notion de « communautés » et recommandationsGroupe URDPublished: November 2012Research, reports and studies


L’étude présentée dans ce rapport se base
sur une recherche d’un mois de terrain à
Port-au-Prince, du 19 août au 21 septembre
2012. Elle cherche à définir ce qu’est
l’approche communautaire en milieu urbain.
Pour cela, la recherche s’attache à éclaircir
la notion de communauté en Haïti, et à
éclairer les questions opérationnelles liées à
l’approche communautaire. L’étude se
consacre donc d’une part à un exposé des
différentes relations de solidarité et liens
« communautaires » en Haïti, accompagnés
de recommandations qui permettent de
mieux appréhender le terrain.

 Assisting Earthquake Victims: Evaluation of Dutch Cooperating Aid Agencies (SHO) Support to Haiti in 2010MFA NetherlandsCompleted: November 2011
Published: November 2011
Evaluation reports

Objectives and scope: 

The evaluation aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the activities implemented by the SHO organisations5 in 2010 and to assess their results. The individual organisations are either part of an international network organisation (e.g. Oxfam Novib) or channel all or some of their contributions to an international organisation. This is for instance the case for UNICEF Nederland, which channels its entire financial contribution to UNICEF Headquarters in New York. The Netherlands Red Cross has channelled some of its contribution through the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and part through self-implementation. This implies that these two SHO organisations have been contributing to very large programmes implemented by these international organisations and their partners in the field. Other SHO organisations provide direct support either through self-implementation or in collaboration with national implementing counterparts. The evaluation has taken these different modalities into consideration.

The evaluation covers the programmes and projects implemented in the period 13 January - 31 December 2010. It includes all SHO organisations and their affiliates active in Haiti, and pays specific attention to those having the largest share of the expenditure in 2010. The evaluation covers all sectors receiving support.

The first year of SHO support to Haiti was mainly characterised by emergency relief.7 This is also reflected in the mix of activities implemented by the SHO organisations and their partners. The boundary between emergency relief and early recovery, reconstruction and rehabilitation is not always clear. Where appropriate and feasible, the latter are already supported in the emergency phase. Consequently, the evaluation has also covered activities related to recovery and rehabilitation, such as education and health programmes (e.g. rebuilding or refurbishing schools or clinics and hospitals), livelihood programmes (e.g. food-for-work and cash-for-work programmes or the provision of small loans to families and small enterprises), and the establishment of sustainable housing (e.g. the provision of transitional or semi-permanent shelter). Finally, though the evaluation mainly focused on activities taking place in the hardest hit urban areas it also included a number of interventions located in rural or peri-urban areas to which earthquake victims had fled.

 Au dela de l'urgence en HaitiECHOCompleted: January 2011
Published: January 2011
Factsheets and summaries

L’objectif de cet exercice, réalisé avant la mission sur le terrain, est de faire un état des lieux des conclusions communes aux principales évaluations conduites jusque là par la communauté internationale. Il s'appuie aussi sur la connaissance du terrain accumulée par l’équipe d’évaluation du Groupe URD.

 Australian Government Response to the Haiti Earthquake of 12 January 2010DFAT (formerly AusAID)Completed: October 2010
Published: October 2010
Programme/project reviews
 Avoiding Reality: Land, Institutions and Humanitarian Action in Post-Earthquake HaitiHPGPublished: September 2012Research, reports and studies

The international aid response to the earthquake in Haiti is often spoken of as being unprecedented in its scale and in the nature of the challenges it faced. This paper in HPG’s “livelihoods and institutions” series suggests that most of the issues faced in Haiti were in fact common, if present to an unusual degree. This makes the aid response in Haiti a useful case study for understanding how aid agencies cope when emergency needs occur in the real, and highly imperfect, world.

Much of the aid was aimed at providing shelter, given the enormous number of people made homeless, and one of the challenges often blamed for delaying the response was ensuring land rights were respected in a country where it is almost impossible to know who owns what. The study focuses on how agencies grappled with the almost Kafka-esque world of Haitian land administration, and found that the response of agencies was to create their own world of rules and standards rather than engage with the uncertain and complex reality that Haitians themselves lived in. As a result, though there were significant achievements, the aid effort was limited in its impact, more expensive than necessary and did not give enough support to helping people achieve their own solutions.

There has been important progress in the way in which the humanitarian world appreciates and tackles land tenure issues in recent years. This study argues, though, that there are underlying reasons why agencies struggle to cope with local institutions like those of land. Unless these reasons are faced directly, it is likely that the same failings will continue to be repeated in each humanitarian crisis.

 Banking With Mobile Phones in Haiti - A report on a T-Cash pilot projectCRSPublished: 2012Evaluation reports

This report describes the experience of Catholic Relief Services Haiti in employing a new mobile phone–based banking service, T-Cash. This service was adopted on a pilot basis to improve CRS’ Cash for Work (CfW) payment system in the Port-au-Prince area. The CfW program ended in late 2011.
For its conceptual framework, the study relied on three evaluation criteria— relevance, efficiency and effectiveness—put forth by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development–Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC). Using qualitative and quantitative methods, investigators collected data from CfW program managers, senior CRS Haiti leadership, CRS Haiti’s finance department and CfW beneficiaries.
Overall, the findings indicate that the T-Cash pilot project was generally successful in achieving its intended results.


 Beneficiary Communication and AccountabilityIFRCPublished: 2011Lessons papers

Each channel of communication requires careful consideration in light of context; face-to-face can be effective but resource intensive, while mass communication tools reach
larger geographic areas at the touch of a button.This document highlights the work that needs to be undertaken internally within the Red Cross Red Crescent to mainstream this approach; including experimenting,training, strengthening and building on already established two-way communication mechanisms. To realize this crucial approach existing systems and processes will also need to reflect how two-way communication can be achieved in the response, recovery and developmental phases of programming. Prepositioning approaches with National Society partners, identifying and establishing
preferred communication channels within country context and introducing two way mechanisms and tools to effectively respond is critical.

 Beneficiary Communication and Accountability: A responsibility, not a choice - Lessons learned and recommendations Indonesia | Haiti | PakistanIFRCPublished: 2011Research, reports and studies

This document highlights the work that needs to be undertaken internally within
the Red Cross Red Crescent to mainstream this approach; including experimenting,
training, strengthening and building on already established two-way communication
mechanisms. To realize this crucial approach existing systems and
processes will also need to reflect how two-way communication can be achieved
in the response, recovery and developmental phases of programming. Prepositioning
approaches with National Society partners, identifying and establishing
preferred communication channels within country context and introducing twoway
mechanisms and tools to effectively respond is critical.

 Beneficiary Communications Evaluation, Haiti Earthquake Operation 2011IFRCPublished: July 2011Evaluation reports

Objectives: The primary objective of this evaluation is to assess the impact of beneficiary
communications activities, campaigns and messages in Haiti, whilst gaining a better
understanding of peoples’ information needs and the most effective channels to
use. The evaluation also aims to identify ways for the Red Cross to increase two-way
communication to increase accountability and engagement with beneficiaries.

This evaluation focuses on the beneficiary communications activities of the Haitian
Red Cross (HRC) and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Socities (IFRC), looking specifically at activities through the eyes of the beneficiaries
to gage perceptions and impact of the Red Cross.

 Between war and peace: humanitarian assistance in violent urban settingsPublished: 7 June 2010Articles

Cities are fast becoming new territories of violence.† The humanitarian consequences of many criminally violent urban settings are comparable to those of more traditional wars, yet despite the intensity of the needs, humanitarian aid to such settings is limited. The way in which humanitarian needs are typically defined, fails to address the problems of these contexts, the suffering they produce and the populations affected. Distinctions between formal armed conflicts, regulated by international humanitarian law, and other violent settings, as well as those between emergency and developmental assistance, can lead to the neglect of populations in distress. It can take a lot of time and effort to access vulnerable communities and implement programmes in urban settings, but experience shows that it is possible to provide humanitarian assistance with a significant focus on the direct and indirect health consequences of violence outside a traditional conflict setting. This paper considers the situation of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Guatemala City (Guatemala).

 Beyond emergency relief in HaitiECHO, Groupe URDCompleted: January 2011
Published: January 2011
Evaluation reports

The purpose of this document, prepared prior to the field work, is to take stock and learn from the common conclusions of the main evaluations carried out by the international humanitarian community to date. It also builds on the evaluation team’s direct knowledge from the field.

 British Red Cross - Mass Sanitation Module, 2010 Haiti Earthquake Response: Post Deployment Learning EvaluationBritish Red Cross SocietyCompleted: August 2010
Published: August 2010
Evaluation reports

This is a review of the deployment of a mass sanitation module by the British Red Cross to Haiti after the January 2010 earthquake. The module is intended to provide sanitation facilities for up to 20,000 people; a self-contained team of trained delegates and pre-packed sets of standardised equipment can be deployed to work with host national society counterparts to mobilise volunteers from the community, providing rapid training for delivery of both hardware and software components of the module. The module is intended to provide safe disposal of excreta, solid waste, waste water, and medical waste; vector control; facilities for hand washing, bathing, and laundry; household water treatment; promotion of good hygiene practices; and advice on the management of dead bodies.

 British Red Cross' Haiti Urban Regeneration and Reconstruction Programme, Final Evaluation (Full)British Red Cross SocietyStarted: June 2012
Completed: June 2015
Published: October 2016
Evaluation reports

This is an independent evaluation of the challenges and achievements of the British Red Cross Haiti 2010 Earthquake recovery programme.

Overall, the report seeks to summarise the extent to which the project achieved it's objectives, assess the effectiveness and impact of the integrated approach to programming, identify lessons for future programming and inform management decisions for future programmes.

 Call Detail Records: The Use of Mobile Phone Data to Track and Predict Population Displacement in DisastersACAPS - The Assessment Capacities Project Published: 12 June 2013Research, reports and studies
Information about the displacement of people after disasters is crucial in determining the scale and impact of the emergency, and is vital for conducting humanitarian needs assessment on the ground. Methods to forecast or detect such migration are however very limited at present.
The use of geo-referenced mobile phone call data to understand post-disaster movements of affected people has been demonstrated in two studies, in the aftermath of the Haiti (2010) and Christchurch, New Zealand (2011) earthquakes. These studies, matched against aid agencies’ recurring information needs in disaster response operations, suggest that this type of data has potential to be a useful new method to forecast and locate people who have been displaced and therefore in need.
The Haiti and New Zealand studies showed that pre-disaster mobile phone usage patterns are highly predictive of where people will move when displaced by an emergency. Analysis of basic mobile call records (known as CDRs) is a practical method for inferring these migrations, to a useful degree of accuracy. The acceleration of mobile phone usage in developing countries should enable the practical use of call data in this way in many disaster incidents; however they have not yet been used as such since 2011. This is because, probably, the methods require substantial technical resources and, crucially, ready access to call data sets from mobile network operators: such cooperation is costly in time and effort and there are a number of institutional obstacles to be overcome, notably involving gaining access to the data, before data can be shared and used as envisaged.


 CaLP Case Study: Shop vouchers for hygiene kits in Port-au-Prince, HaitiCaLP, OxfamPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies


Oxfam has been working in Haiti since 1978, with
both permanent programmes and humanitarian aid. In
response to the 2010 earthquake, Oxfam International
decided to focus on water and sanitation, shelter,
food security, livelihoods and the provision of Non-
Food items (NFIs) in the metropolitan area and some
affected areas outside Port au Prince. The voucher
programme was part of the second phase of the
response, with preparations beginning in late June
2010 and implementation taking place in September -
The objective of the programme was to improve
health conditions in the area of Carrefour Feuilles
by facilitating access to hygiene kits for vulnerable
families. Beneficiaries were selected from an existing
canteen project which was providing daily hot meals
to displaced families. In order to deal with the massive
challenge and security risks of ‘classical’ in-kind
distributions in an urban context, Oxfam decided to
pilot a voucher programme for beneficiaries to access
hygiene items through local shops.

 Camp Committee Assessment - a tool for deciding how to work with camp committeesHAP-IPublished: 2010Tools, guidelines and methodologies

As a result of the 12th January 2010 earthquake 2.3 million people were displaced resulting in over 1300 camps, with 1.6 million residents. The camps vary in terms of size (from a few tents to up to 50,000 people); how they were formed (while some were planned the majority formed spontaneously after the earthquake); and level of support and management from NGOs and agencies (it is estimated that around 30% have camp management agencies). A factor common to many camps, however, is the presence of some form of camp committee, or as in the case of some camps, multiple camp committees.

As in all contexts, NGOs and aid agencies are accountable to a number of different
stakeholders, but in particular to those women, men, girls and boys they are seeking to assist. In brief, accountability can be defined as the means through which power is used responsibly. It involves taking account of, and being held accountable by, those affected by the emergency. For humanitarian organisations, accountability to affected-people helps programmes to meet people’s needs, and reduces the possibility of errors, abuse and corruption. This results in more effective and better quality programmes, and enables organisations themselves to perform better.

The HAP 2007 Standard in Humanitarian Accountability and Quality Management, was
adopted in 2007 to define in more detail what accountability means in practice, and identifies
what matters most in the way agencies work with affected-communities. In assessing how,
following the earthquake in Haiti, agencies could strengthen their accountability, the camp
committees were identified as playing a key role.

This tool can be used in both rural and urban, camp and non-camp situations to engage with affected populations.

 Case Study: BRC and SMS Communication in Rural AreasBritish Red Cross Society, InfoasaidPublished: 17 November 2011Lessons papers

After the earthquake, the British Red Cross (BRC) established a programme to subsidise the school fees of 8,000 children displaced by the earthquake to the southern rural area of Les Cayes. BRC staff had recorded the phone numbers of all participants during the assessment (including designated community leaders where people did not have phones), and the team decided to use SMS as the only way to simultaneously inform everyone of the decision. This paper describes the implementation process.

 Case Study: CDAC Haiti and Cholera ResearchCDAC-NPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

Shortly after the outbreak of cholera in October 2010, Communications with Disaster Affected
Communities (CDAC) Haiti initiated a multi-agency process to survey levels of knowledge of cholera, and of its prevention and treatment. Organisations felt that they needed indicators on information needs around the disease. This report summarizes the implementation process.

 Case study: CDAC Haiti and the Koute Ayiti CaravanCDAC-NPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

The Koute Ayiti caravan project (Kreyol for ‘Listen to Haiti’) was developed by Communications with Disaster Affected Communities (CDAC) Haiti to address several systemic gaps in communication. This paper describes the feedback of the project atendees.

 Case study: Chimen Lakay and Camp-Based RadioCDAC-N, Infoasaid, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

Chimen Lakay (Kreyol for ‘The Way Home’) is a radio project run and developed by the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), originally in partnership with commercial network Radio Ginen and now with the community station Radio Boukman based in Cité de Soleil in Port au Prince. Unlike other radio shows, Chimen Lakay was initially broadcast daily live from the camps, changing location each day. From the start the show took an experimental open mike approach to allow people to share views and generate discussion on camp issues. This study summarizes the lessons learned during the project implementation and the opinions of the locals about it.

 Case Study: Cholera and the Ministry of Public HealthInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

The Ministry of Public Health in Haiti launched a communication response to the outbreak of cholera as soon as the disease was confirmed on October 21st 2010. This paper describes the communication process.

 Case Study: Concern and Communication in Small CampsInfoasaid, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Conference, training & meeting documents

This paper describes the communication process in efforts to provide options available to camp residents after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

 Case study: CRC Information KiosksCRC, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

The Canadian Red Cross (CRC) began developing information kiosks in response to the need to improve information sharing between the organisation and camp/community residents with whom they were working, particularly with regard to shelter. This report decribes the process of implementation and the feedback received.

 Case Study: ENDK and Emergency Radio BroadcastsCDAC-N, Infoasaid, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

Enformasyon Nou Dwe Konnen – ENDK (Kreyol for ‘News You Can Use’) is a daily humanitarian news and information programme produced by media development organisation, Internews, and broadcast through a network of radio stations across Haiti. ENDK is based on similar broadcast models developed after emergencies in Indonesia and Pakistan to provide actionable information and advice on the response to a disaster. This paper describes the implementation of the programme.

 Case Study: ENDK and the Feedback SystemInfoasaid, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

Very early on in the project the team working on ENDK realised that some kind of system for
audience feedback, and to enable listeners to ask questions, was essential. This was especially important in an environment where travelling to earthquake-affected areas near the office was so difficult. This paper descreibes the system implementation in Haiti.

 Case Study: HRC and Perceptions of CholeraInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

A few weeks into the cholera outbreak, the Haitian Red Cross (HRC) psychosocial section organised an initial series of nine discussion and awareness-raising groups on cholera in four earthquake affected areas where they were already working. This paper analyses the content of group discussions and the study about the information shared through the prevention campaign.

 Case Study: IFRC and Camp Communications as Conflict MitigationIFRC, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

The management of the IFRC camp for impoverished and densely populated people after the Haiti earthquake in 2010 faced difficult and potentially very divisive decisions over allocation of shelter, in a camp where tensions were already high. IFRC developed a communication strategy to address these issues. This paper overviews the implementation of the strategy and the feedback received.

 Case study: IFRC and Managing a Call CentreIFRC, Infoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

This paper overviews the implementation of a call centre established in the shelter project in the Annexe de la Mairie camp in Cité de Soleil, Haiti.

 Case Study: IFRC and the Standalone Beneficiary Communication UnitIFRC, Infoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

IFRC Haiti established the organisation’s first-ever dedicated beneficiary communication unit. This paper describes the unit.

 Case Study: IFRC, Voila and Public/Private Telecoms Sector PartnershipsIFRC, Infoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

The most comprehensive and successful partnership between aid providers and a telecoms company to emerge from Haiti is that between the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and local provider Trilogy International Partners, who owns the Voila network in Haiti. This paper presents the partnership and the benefits for the community.

 Case Study: IOM and the Establishment of a Standalone Communications UnitInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) communication unit was originally intended to
be a conventional public relations/public information department. The initiative to expand into, and ultimately focus on the area of communication with disaster-affected communities was the work of the individual hired to establish the unit, under conventional terms of reference as a public information officer. This paper desribes the building of the unit.

 Case Study: JPHRO and Large Scale Camp CommunicationsInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

Since the earliest days of the response, the Jenkins/Penn Haiti Relief Organisation (JPHRO) managed the spontaneous camp on the golf course of the Petionville Club in Port au Prince, home to an estimated 50,000 internally displaced people. From the start, JPHRO implemented a philosophy of dialogue, of offering camp residents a choice of options, and of framing communication work as an opportunity for camp residents to ask questions and discuss their circumstances. This paper describes the 'information kiosk' system implemented.

 Case Study: MINUSTAH and Soap Opera Production in Post-Earthquake CampsInfoasaid, Internews, MINUSTAHPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

From a production perspective, one of the most interesting communication projects carried out in Haiti in 2010 was a soap opera produced by the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti
(MINUSTAH). The drama series, entitled ‘Under The Sky’, was designed to reflect life in camps while weaving in messaging around issues such as registration, gender-based violence, child vulnerability, post-earthquake traumatic distress and hygiene. This paper describes the implementation process and the results achieved.

 Case Study: Noula and the Local Technological ResponseInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

The Noula project (Kreyol for ‘We are Here’) was a web-based system for mapping local needs and sources of assistance. This paper describes the system implementation process.

 Case Study: Radio 1 and Family ReunificationInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

Radio 1 is one of the biggest radio stations in Haiti. It broadcasts nationwide and online to a diaspora audience. One of the first staff members to go back to the station in the hours after the disaster was music manager and DJ Carel Pedre, a well-known Haitian broadcaster and social media enthusiast with a strong Facebook presence and a Twitter feed followed by thousands. This report describes Carel’s visibility on international media and broadcasts on Radio 1.

 Case Study: SAKS, BHN and the Community Address SystemBBC Media Action, Infoasaid, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Lessons papers

This case study published by infoasaid captures practical case studies and best practice in communications with affected communities during the 2010 responses in Haiti. It is a part of case study collection 'Best Practice and Lessons Learned in Communication with Disaster Affected Communities'.

 Case Study: Signal FM and Emergency MediaInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

Signal FM is one of the most important news radio stations in Haiti’s capital, Port au Prince, and prior to the earthquake had built a reputation of breaking many political stories. It was also one of the few unscathed by the earthquake (all the staff also survived) and which carried on broadcasting throughout the first hours of the disaster. This paper describes the facilitating role of this radio station.

 Case Study: The CRC Radio Show in LeoganeCRC, Infoasaid, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

The Canadian Red Cross (CRC) is one of the few organisations that implemented local-level radio work with their weekly broadcast in Leogane. Starting in March 2011, they began hosting a weekly 30-minute long interactive radio show about their work on Radio Belval. The programme grew out of challenges in January 2011 in Leogane when people, unhappy with NGO services (who had not communicated effectively with local communities), started disrupting
projects. CRC recognised this as a communication problem and began negotiations with Radio
Belval. Broadcasting kicked off on March 7th and by the second edition they were receiving more
calls than they could handle. This report describes the implementation process.

 Case Study: TwitmobilInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

This paper desribes Twitmobil - a system of receiving Twitter feeds on a mobile phone by subscribing to a specific feed.

 Case Study: Two-Way SMS Communication with Disaster Affected People in HaitiCDAC-N, IFRCPublished: March 2012Research, reports and studies

After the Haiti earthquake in 2010, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) realised that an effective method of two-way communication with disaster affected people was needed. It decided to base its mobile communication system on SMS text messaging. This paper describes the implementation process and the lessons learned.

 Case Study: UNOPS and Communication in Technical Project Design and ImplementationInfoasaid, Internews, UKANPublished: 20 December 2011Research, reports and studies

Within days of the January 12th earthquake in Haiti, the United Nations Office for Project Services
(UNOPS) and the Ministry of Public Works began discussing plans for a large-scale project to
evaluate every building affected by the disaster. The project designer recognised the need for technical support in communication. From the start communication work focused on community mobilisers, tasked with house-to-house visits to explain the project and pave the way for technical assessments by engineers. This paper describes the communication in more detail.

 Cash Programming in Haiti: Lessons Learnt in Disbursing CashUNDP, UNFPA - United Nations Population FundPublished: March 2011After action & learning reviews


This document was a result of interviews with the following 17 organizations in Haiti (UNDP, WFP, Oxfam, Save the Children, ALL Hands, Fosac, Mercy Corps, Christian Aid, Catholic Relief Services, American Red Cross, British Red Cross, Lutheran World Foundation, Fonkoze, Unibank, Voila, Digicel, and ACTED) in Feb 2011.These interviews were conducted over a two week period in Feb 2011 and constituted the first part of the fact-finding mission for the UNDP Lessons Learned in Cash Programming in Haiti. The second mission, which is by far the larger mission will spend 2 months in Haiti on the next phase of the fact finding, focusing on filling in gaps, and undertaking an understanding of the impact of cash programming, evaluation work and gaps in policy. This mission is expected to take place in Haiti in May and June 2011. The Final Report will be published later in 2011.

 CDAC Haiti: Learning ReviewCDAC-NPublished: May 2012Research, reports and studies

In the immediate aftermath of the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the CDAC Network
undertook its first ever ground initiative. This initiative, which came to be known as CDAC
Haiti, was funded largely through the OCHA’s ERRF with some additional short-term funding
in 2011 from the global CDAC Network and the World Health Organisation (WHO). In total,
CDAC Haiti received US $615,000.

This Learning Review aims to document CDAC Haiti’s activities, assess achievements, and
contribute knowledge about what worked, what didn’t, and why. A key component of the Review
is the identification of lessons from this ‘new’ area of humanitarian coordination that can be drawn for other emergency operations. The Review was conducted between October 2011 and January 2012.

 Challenges Faced by Humanitarian agency in Emergency Response in Urban areas: Lessons from Haiti and ChilePublished: September 2010Lessons papers


This study mainly looks for the root causes of those challenges which are faced by the humanitarian agencies during emergency response in Haiti and Chile. And try to focus those in detail with the support of secondary data. This paper took Haiti and Chile earthquake as a case study and tries to bring out the lessons which can be applicable for Dhaka or Chittagong for disaster management. And bring out the limitation of the legal framework and disaster management plan in urban areas by GOB with workable solutions.

 Children of Haiti: Three Months after the Earthquake: Progress, Gaps and Plans in Humanitarian Action Supporting a Transformative Agenda for Children UNICEFCompleted: April 2010
Published: April 2010
Research, reports and studies

This report takes stock of the main achievements in responding to the immediate needs of children and those who care for them – but also highlights the serious gaps and challenges that still exist to ensuring the large numbers of survival and protection of children affected by the earthquake.

 Cities and crises: urban fragility, humanitarian action and the challenges of reconstruction in citiesGroupe URDPublished: 26 April 2011Presentations


One day conference hosted by Groupe URD on 26 April 2011. The conference focuses on fragility in built and urban environments in the context of the 2010 Haiti earthquake and on the challenges of humanitarian and reconstruction operations in these environments.

These issues has been explored via the following topics:

Urban fragility and vulnerability
The challenges and specific characteristics of humanitarian aid in cities
The reconstruction process in urban environments

 Climate Change Resilience: The Case of HaitiOxfamPublished: 1 March 2014Evaluation reports

This research report asserts that the prospects for climate change resilience in Haiti are now intricately tied to post-earthquake reconstruction. As Haiti turns its attention to preparing for more disasters and rebuilds significant portions of its infrastructure, it is essential to seize this opportunity to integrate climate resilience into these efforts.

Oxfam Research Reports are written to share research results, to contribute to public debate and to invite feedback on development and humanitarian policy and practice. They do not necessarily reflect Oxfam policy positions. The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of Oxfam.

 Closing the loop- Responding to people's information needs from crisis response to recovery to development: A case study of post-earthquake HaitiInternewsCompleted: May 2012
Published: May 2012
Research, reports and studies

This paper, a review of an Internews humanitarian-information radio program launched in Haiti after the January 2010 earthquake that devastated the country, argues that information provision should be a core component of any humanitarian assistance or development program. Radio is a cost-effective, ubiquitous, widely used and credible news source in Haiti. The Internews program, Enfomasyon Nou Dwe Konnen (News You Can Use, or ENDK), reported directly on concerns that members of the affected population identified as most important to them in the year after the earthquake, a year that included a destructive hurricane, a cholera epidemic and election violence. We therefore argue that ENDK has “closed the loop” on assistance provision by connecting it directly to the information needs of the affected population.

 Community Resettlement and Recovery Program in HaitiCRSPublished: 2011Articles

On January 12, 2010, Haiti endured its strongest earthquake in 200 years. Homes, schools and businesses crumbled, government services came to a standstill and security deteriorated. The Haitian government reported that more than 200,000 people lost their lives. Survivors were left traumatized.
Internally displaced people spontaneously formed some 1,280 camps, which became home to a total of 255,500 households. Although the camp population decreased from 1.5 million people to 580,000 people by the end of September 2011, the remaining camp residents are considered to be the most vulnerable. In addition, hundreds of thousands live in unsafe houses, tents or rudimentary shelters in devastated neighborhoods.


 Comparative Study of Emergency Cash Coordination Mechanisms CaLP, Groupe URDPublished: May 2012Research, reports and studies


Based principally on three cases studies (Pakistan, Haiti, and the Horn of Africa), the objective of this comparative study is to draw on lessons learnt for better coordination of cash transfer programmes (CTP) in future emergencies and to help build the CaLP’s advocacy strategy on cash coordination at global level. This study has been commissioned by the CaLP and conducted by Groupe URD.

 Compte Rendu du Cluster AgriculturePublished: July 2010Conference, training & meeting documents


Ordre du jour :

1. Présentation du Programme Coupons Fruits Frais (Fresh Food Vouchers, en anglais) par Julie MAYANS, Coordonnatrice de sécurité alimentaire à l’ACF.
2. Présentation par Emmet Murphy de l’ACDI/VOCA de l’approche « EMMA » d’Analyse et de Cartographie des Marchés en situation d’Urgence (Emergency Market Mapping Analysis, en anglais).
3. Autres questions d’intérêt.


 Contextual understanding, coordination and humanitarian space: key issues for HaitiGroupe URDPublished: 2014Websites

The image of the humanitarian sector and the confidence that people have in it determine the quality of aid, the security of humanitarian staff and the possibility of having a positive impact in the long term. These are vital issues which need to be taken into account in a difficult context like Haiti which has experienced periods of violence and which is confronted today with enormous challenges following a large-scale disaster. Understanding of the context, coordination mechanisms and perceptions of the relations between humanitarians, the government and the army are key factors which need to be analysed to understand the image of aid.


 Corporate Evaluation of CIDA's Humanitarian Assistance 2005 - 2011CIDAPublished: August 2012Evaluation reports

This report presents the results of an evaluation of the humanitarian assistance programming (both through multilateral and bilateral channels) of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) from April 2005 to April 2011. It was designed as both an exercise in accountability, as required by the Government of Canada Treasury Board Policy on Evaluation, as well as an opportunity for institutional learning. It covers issues of relevance, design and delivery and performance.

 Crisis Reports: HaitiPublished: September 2010Research, reports and studies

The crisis and the response

- The US military's post-earthquake management of entry to Haiti prioritised US flights and expensive search and rescue missions and delayed the response of experienced actors.

- An influx of small, often in-experienced, INGOs reduced the quality of the humanitarian response.

- It has proven uniquely challenging to determine the number of humanitarian actors, the total level of funding and to prepare accurate 3W (who does what, where) information.

- OCHA's ability to undertake basic post-emergency tasks was undermined by low capacity and sidelining of the HCT.

- The cluster system was weakened by the number of actors and failure to sufficiently involve the Haitian state or civil society.


 CRS Haiti Accountability FrameworkCRSPublished: 2012Plans, policy and strategy

This accountability framework, drawing from CRS’ guiding
principles, Catholic social teaching and other recognized
accountability frameworks, defi nes what CRS Haiti is working
toward in terms of being accountable to our program
participants and communities where we work. It is applicable
to emergency and development programs and relevant for
all staff.

CRS’ mission is one of solidarity, serving the most vulnerable
overseas. The principles of CRS necessitate that CRS
continuously integrates accountability into its work. The
six commitments outlined here are key to ensuring that
programming respects and refl ects CRS’ guiding principles.
The framework is designed to be measurable and to provide
clear direction so that staff can easily identify what has
been achieved and what needs to be improved. In order
for our programs to be successful, the commitments in the
accountability framework need to be refl ected in (1) policy,
guidelines, systems, structures and capacity strengthening
initiatives, (2) staff skills and knowledge and (3) CRS and
partner programs.

 CRS Haiti real-time evaluation of the 2010 earthquake responseCRSCompleted: March 2011
Published: March 2011
Evaluation reports

The purpose of this document is to share findings and recommendations from the RTE conducted in June 2010, as well as Catholic Relief Services (CRS) - Haiti program's discussion in August 2010 on how to move those recommendations forward. Annexes include additional extractions from the RTE report, including a timeline of the first months of the response, findings from CRS' Tsunami response based out of Aceh, and staff perspectives that were gathered during the consultant's findings workshop held in June.

 DARA Humanitarian Response Index 2010DARA InternationalPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies

The Humanitarian Response Index (HRI) 2010 provides an independent and objective assessment of how well the world’s main donor governments are supporting aid efforts. The report reveals increasing politicization and militarization of humanitarian aid by governments, which is compromising aid efforts to assist vulnerable populations and endangering humanitarian workers. The report urges donor governments to adopt a more principled approach in their assistance, and respect the Good Humanitarian Donorship principles as an essential step to make humanitarian aid more effective.

Part One: The Humanitarian Response Index 2010
The Humanitarian Response Index (HRI) report, published by DARA since 2007, examines responses to crises to assess how the world´s main donor governments – 23 members of the OECD´s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) – face the challence of ensuring that their aid money is used effectively and efficiently in order to maximize the benfits for those affected.

Part Two: Donor Assessments
Assessment of each of the 23 OECD/DAC donors against the Principles of Good Humanitarian Donorship.

Part Three: Crisis Reports
Crisis reports specifically illustrate the constraints and challenges that humanitarian actors face within the context of each crisis studied, with the inherent goal of identifying where improvements are needed in the global provision of humanitarian aid.


 Des programmes humanitaires à adapter aux vulnérabilités urbainesACF - Action Against HungerPublished: 2011Presentations
 Disaster as Opportunity? Building Back Better in Aceh, Myanmar and HaitiODIPublished: November 2013Research, reports and studies

The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 was a disaster of unparalleled proportions, devastating the lives and livelihoods of millions of people across 14 countries.
It also prompted an international response that was unprecedented in its scale. Billions of dollars were raised for relief and reconstruction, and thousands of people and hundreds of aid agencies from around the world were directly involved in recovery efforts. The response sought not just to reinstate what the tsunami had destroyed, but to leave the communities it had affected better, fairer, stronger and more peaceful than they had been before the disaster struck. As former US President Bill Clinton put it in his capacity as UN Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery: ‘We need to make sure that this recovery process accomplishes more than just restoring what was there before’. This aspiration – encapsulated in the phrase ‘build back better’ – quickly became
the recovery effort’s mantra, guiding principle and enduring promise. Within months, the recovery came to be regarded as a means not only to rebuild assets indand capacities directly affected by the disaster, but also to bring to an end long-running civil conflicts in Aceh and Sri Lanka; build the capacity of institutions; expand access to services such as health and education; reduce poverty and strengthen livelihood security; advance gender equality; and empower and open up spaces for civil society.


 Disasters Journal: Special Issue: Urban vulnerability and humanitarian responsePublished: June 2012Articles

Urban vulnerability and displacement: a review of current issues (pages S1–S22)

Sara Pantuliano, Victoria Metcalfe, Simone Haysom and Eleanor Davey


Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships (pages S23–S42)

Jeff Crisp, Tim Morris and Hilde Refstie


Protecting people in cities: the disturbing case of Haiti (pages S43–S63)

Elizabeth Ferris and Sara Ferro-Ribeiro


Shelter strategies, humanitarian praxis and critical urban theory in post-crisis reconstruction (pages S64–S86)

Lilianne Fan


Moving from the ‘why’ to the ‘how’: reflections on humanitarian response in urban settings (pages S87–S104)

Elena Lucchi


Aid in a city at war: the case of Mogadishu, Somalia (pages S105–S125)

François Grünewald


Jockeying for position in the humanitarian field: Iraqi refugees and faith-based organisations in Damascus (pages S126–S148)

Tahir Zaman

 Donor Funding in Haiti: Assessing Humanitarian Needs after the 2010 Haiti EarthquakeDevelopment InitiativesPublished: October 2011Research, reports and studies

Despite a history of violence and high vulnerability to natural disasters, Haiti has never remained at the centre of attention of humanitarian donors for too long. While in particularly critical years official government donors’ funding has risen dramatically, the volume of financial resources committed to Haiti has always been relatively modest in comparison with the scale of the humanitarian situation in the country. For many years Haiti has been the poorest country in the Western hemisphere, where an estimated half of the population survive on less than a dollar a day. It is also a country of great political instability and significant economic and social turmoil. Food insecurity is chronic, and Haiti is highly dependent on international aid and the import of goods for its subsistence. Almost 30% of the state budget and 60% of household income are destined for the purchase of food.


 Emergency Market Mapping Analysis (EMMA) - An exploration of EMMA's diagnostic processes and its impact on humanitarian response-logicCompleted: December 2010
Published: 2010
Research, reports and studies

Objectives: To explore and evaluate user understanding of the EMMA toolkit; to look at how practitioners perceive its strengths and weaknesses in order to gauge where EMMA sits within practice.

 Engaging urban communities in humanitarian responseALNAP, British Red Cross Society, IFRCPublished: March 2014Conference, training & meeting documents

This recording was made on 11 March 2014 at ALNAP's 29th Annual Meeting, focusing on engagement of crises-affected people. It was a panel specifically focusing on engagement in urban areas. Presentations were made by British Red Cross, Mukuru Slums Development Projects and IFRC and followed by a Q&A session. Bonaventure Sokpoh from Groupe URD was the chair.

 Engaging urban communities in the Haiti Earthquake Response: Lessons learned from the shelter programIFRCPublished: 11 March 2014Presentations

The Haiti Earthquake in 2010 is one of the largest urban disasters in recent times. Issues of limited social cohesion, lack of space, gang control of camps and the huge numbers of people in need combined to pose major challenges to the IFRC in how to deliver traditional emergency response activities like hygiene promotion and shelter provision. Unable to rely on traditional community structures like the village committees and tribal chiefs, the Red Cross turned to technology like SMS systems, radio broadcasts and automated hotlines to ensure people could access the information they need, ask questions and provide their feedback on Red Cross programmes.


 Etude en temps réel de la gestion de la crise en Haïti après le séisme du 12 janvier 2010Groupe URDCompleted: April 2010
Published: April 2010
Evaluation reports

Capturer la mémoire du premier mois de la réponse à une catastrophe a très rarement pu être réalisé
par le secteur de l’évaluation. Si les déploiements militaires ou ceux de la sécurité civile conduisent
régulièrement des retours d’expérience (RETEX), les évaluateurs arrivent souvent bien après, c’est-
à-dire alors que les équipes des premières heures et semaines ont depuis longtemps été remplacées
et que le retour à la normale a modifié les perceptions et les enseignements de cette première phase.

Le Groupe URD essaye depuis longtemps de faire converger et de promouvoir les exercices
d’évaluation de cette phase de la réponse d’urgence extrême. Les efforts faits après l’ouragan Mitch
en 1998-99 et après les événements du Kosovo, d’Afghanistan et le Tsunami ont permis de justifier
l’importance de cette démarche. Les Nations Unies ont repris cette posture sous le nom de
« Evaluation en Temps Réel » (ETR). La difficulté de mobiliser dans les premiers jours des moyens
et des équipes prêtes et aguerries à ce genre d’exercice fait que l’équipe ETR arrive souvent
plusieurs mois après l’évènement.

Le Groupe URD conduit depuis plusieurs mois un travail de recherche soutenu par la Délégation
aux Affaires Stratégiques du Ministère de la Défense sur la thématique des « risques non
intentionnels » (catastrophes naturelles, technologiques et sanitaires) à l'horizon des trente ans. A
l’occasion de la présentation du rapport intermédiaire de ce projet de recherche au Comité de
Pilotage interinstitutionnel (Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Ministère de la Défense, Ministère
de l’Intérieur et des collectivités locales, centres de recherche spécialisés, etc.), quelques jours après
le tremblement de terre, il a été confié à François Grünewald, en complément de cette étude en
cours, une consultance sur La gestion de la crise en Haïti après le séisme du 12 janvier 2010, sous
la forme d'une mission d'évaluation en temps réel.
L'objectif de cette consultance était de:
1. Faire un état des lieux, le plus factuel et le plus neutre possible, des acteurs et des
structures locales, nationales et internationales, mises en place pour gérer la crise.
2. Evaluer la cohérence entre les besoins et les actions d'aide d'urgence. L'étude
apportera un regard critique sur l'adéquation entre les besoins des populations affectées,
la délivrance de l'aide d'urgence par les acteurs civils et militaires et les contraintes
propres à ce contexte d'intervention. Les conclusions de cette analyse devront orienter
les décisions futures en matière d'anticipation et de planification de la gestion de crise
pour les acteurs français, tant dans un cadre national que face aux enjeux multilatéraux.
3. Interroger la population bénéficiaire de l'aide d'urgence et essayer de comprendre leur
perception de la gestion de la crise, leur appréciation de la qualité de l'aide et de ses
acteurs, ainsi que leur représentation du futur.
4. Analyser cette gestion sous l’angle défense et sécurité en dégageant, via l'action de la
MINUSTAH, le déploiement militaire américain et l’imbrication des interventions
militaires extérieures, les leçons apprises et les savoir-faire requis.
Après cette mission, il s'agira dans un second temps d'analyser de façon factuelle et critique la
gestion institutionnelle de cette crise dans un espace temporel compris entre le 12 janvier 2010, date
du déclenchement de la catastrophe, et début mars 2010. L'analyse à froid de la réponse
institutionnelle à la crise portera sur le dispositif français, les dispositifs étrangers nationaux les plus
significatifs et les dispositifs multinationaux (BCAH de l'ONU, la MINUSTAH, l'Union
Européenne, les Organisations internationales et régionales…).

 Evaluacion de Comunicacion con BeneficiariosIFRCPublished: July 2011Evaluation reports


Comunicar con los beneficiarios tiene muchas ventajas para una operación humanitaria, pues permite salvar vidas, promover la dignidad y la confianza en la operación, así como dar voz a la gente en las decisiones, lo que a su vez mejora la eficiencia y efectividad de los programas.

La Operación Terremoto en Haití cambió la forma en que la Cruz Roja comunica con sus beneficiarios asignando recursos a la elaboración de un programa de comunicaciones con los beneficiarios que aprovecha al máximo la nueva tecnología y apoya a la organización en la rendición de cuentas a los mismos.

En la presenta evaluación se procura comprender la repercusión de dicho programa a través de la mirada de los beneficiarios y, a la vez, entender mejor las necesidades y los canales de información haitianos.


 Evaluacion de comunicacion con beneficiaros: Resumen ejecutivo, Haiti 2011IFRCPublished: July 2011Evaluation reports
 Evaluación de la Gestión de la Ayuda de Emergencia en Haití post-terremoto 2010 Solidaridad InternacionalStarted: November 2010Evaluation reports

Objectives: El principal objetivo de la evaluación es establecer recomendaciones y sacar conclusiones en torno a la gestión en su totalidad de la respuesta de emergencia ante el evento del terremoto del 12 de Enero de 2010 (comunicación, captación de fondos, el diseño de la intervención, su ejecución, el alcance de los objetivos y la medición de resultados.). Además se quiere valorar el vínculo entre la ayuda de emergencia la rehabilitación y desarrollo (LRRD por sus siglas en inglés) y su incorporación y aplicación en los procesos de rehabilitación iniciados tras la primera respuesta de emergencia. En referencia al LRRD se manejarán tres ejes partiendo de los imperativos humanitarios y las perspectivas de desarrollo que son: como se conjugan las iniciativas de la población afectada y de las instituciones públicas con las iniciativas de Solidaridad Internacional.

En relación a las razones estratégicas para la evaluación, se pretende mejorar la calidad de la intervención, incorporar los aprendizajes a la toma de decisiones, generar capacidades y, a través de la rendición de cuentas al equipo de Solidaridad Internacional, fomentar la cultura de la evaluación así como profundizar en la coherencia de la intervención en relación al contexto regional y la experiencia de intervención de Solidaridad Internacional en el área en este sector de intervención.

 Évaluation d'opération - Haïti DEV 200150 « Projet d’appui au programme national de cantines scolaires » WFPPublished: January 2015Evaluation reports

L’évaluation finale du projet DEV 200150 (2012-2014) « Projet d’appui au programme national de cantines scolaires », qui s’est déroulée d’août à décembre 2014, avait pour objectifs de : i) rendre compte des résultats et ii) tirer des enseignements utiles pour l’avenir. Elle s’articule autour de trois questions principales : 1) la pertinence ; 2) les résultats (efficience, efficacité, impact et pérennité) ; et 3) les facteurs, internes et externes, qui expliquent les résultats.

Le projet vise à augmenter l’accès équitable à l’éducation ; à stabiliser ou réduire la sous-nutrition y compris les carences en micronutriments ; et à renforcer l’appropriation et les capacités du Gouvernement.


 Evaluation de l'aide humanitaire en Haïti Tulane University, University of Haiti (UEH)Completed: May 2012
Published: May 2012
Evaluation reports

Le présent rapport publie les résultats du programme d’Evaluation de l’Assistance Humanitaire en Haïti suite au séisme du 12 janvier 2010, dirigé conjointement par la Disaster Resilience Leadership Academy de l’Université de Tulane et par l’Université d’Etat d’Haïti. Le projet a bénéficié du soutien financier de la Fondation Bill & Melinda Gates.

Nous avons élaboré et mis en place un processus de recherche dynamique, qui a permis à notre équipe d’analystes d’examiner les thèmes de la résilience et de l’aide humanitaire sous l’impulsion de nos partenaires haïtiens, et dans le contexte d’un débat animé par des groupes de travail qui réunissaient des participants locaux issus des communautés affectées. Guidée par ces discussions, notre équipe d’analystes a pu développer un schéma de résilience qui conjugue 7 critères de résilience (niveau de ressources, endettement et crédit, comportements d’adaptation, capital humain, réseaux communautaires, protection/sécurité, ainsi que santé psycho-sociale).Nous avons eu recours à des données primaires recueillies au moyen de plusieurs enquêtes nationales auprès des ménages ainsi que d’observateurs essentiels parmi les communautés. Notre objectif était de mesurer les corrélations entre le séisme, la résilience préalable des Haïtiens, l’accès à l’aide humanitaire, et la résilience finale. Les critères de résilience ont été évalués au niveau des ménages mais aussi des individus.

Notre évaluation a démontré que l’aide humanitaire mise en oeuvre par les Haïtiens et la communauté internationale n’a pas eu d’effet bénéfique notable au regard des 7 critères de résilience : voire qu’elle a pu dans certains cas aller de pair avec des dynamiques négatives. De plus, notre analyse souligne l’impératif d’agir de concert avec les communautés affectées dès le départ, afin que les stratégies, les choix politiques, et leur mise en oeuvre sur le terrain reflètent une compréhension judicieuse des mécanismes de résilience et d’adaptation locaux. Ceux-ci doivent être intégrés au coeur de chaque étape de la planification humanitaire, dès l’irruption de la déstabilisation et jusqu’au terme du processus de relèvement.

Nous espérons que le schéma de mesure de la résilience que nous avons défini et utilisé dans le cadre de la présente étude pourra stimuler la poursuite des débats concernant la résilience haïtienne, voire qu’il permettra d’affiner les stratégies d’évaluation continue dans le cadre de la reconstruction d’Haïti. Cependant, cela ne pourra passer que par l’augmentation des ressources consacrées au développement des capacités du pays dans ce domaine, afin qu’Haïti soit en mesure de développer plus avant des méthodes et mesures d’évaluation (en particulier concernant le suivi des flux de ressources tout au long des chaînes de distribution, jusqu’aux destinataires parmi les organisations et populations haïtiennes). Seule une dynamique de ce type permettra de mieux comprendre les conditions de la résilience, et de produire les informations nécessaires au développement d’une planification guidée par les données du terrain. De fait, un des obstacles principaux rencontrés par notre équipe d’évaluation réside dans le fait que les flux de ressources restent trop opaques pour permettre une information et une analyse complètes – tandis que de nombreuses organisations humanitaires hésitent à promouvoir une meilleure transparence. Le renforcement des capacités dans ce domaine permettrait aux protagonistes haïtiens des secteurs public et privé de suivre, analyser, et surtout cibler et gérer plus efficacement les efforts humanitaires et de reconstruction, afin d’améliorer la résilience du pays.

Pour conclure, il est important de souligner que les observations de l’Evaluation de l’Assistance Humanitaire en Haïti reflètent les points de vue et les perceptions des Haïtiens eux-mêmes. Les recommandations que nous proposons dans les pages qui suivent ont pour objectif de suggérer au peuple et au gouvernement haïtien des pistes qui leur permettent de tisser des partenariats plus efficaces avec la communauté internationale, afin de travailler de concert vers des lendemains plus heureux – car plus résilients.

 Evaluation de la communication des bénéficiaires: Résumé Executif, Haiti 2011IFRCCompleted: July 2011
Published: July 2011
Evaluation reports

 La communication avec les be´ne´ficiaires est cruciale dans le cadre d’une ope´ration humanitaire. Elle sauve des vies, pre´serve la dignite´ des personnes affecte´es et renforce leur confiance dans l’action mene´e en leur nom. En les associant aux prises de de´cisions, elle contribue en retour a` accroi^tre l’efficience et l’efficacite´ des programmes.
L’ope´ration Tremblement de terre en Hai¨ti a profonde´ment modifie´ le mode de communication de la Croix-Rouge avec ses be´ne´ficiaires. Gra^ce a` un programme dote´ de ressources spe´cifiques qui met a` profit les dernie`res technologies, l’organisation est de´sormais en mesure de conformer mieux que jamais auparavant ses interventions aux attentes et priorite´s de ses be´ne´ficiaires.
La pre´sente e´valuation a pour but d'analyser l’impact de ce programme a` travers les yeux des be´ne´ficiaires et d’ame´liorer notre compre´hension des besoins et moyens de communication en Hai¨ti.

 Evaluation en temps réel des actions humanitaires soutenues par la DG ECHO en HaïtiGroupe URDStarted: November 2010
Published: April 2011
Evaluation reports

Dans le cadre des règlements communautaires et au vu de l’ampleur des fonds mobilisés sur Haïti depuis 2008, une évaluation opérationnelle et stratégique a été conduite de novembre 2010 à avril 2011. La mission de terrain du 28 janvier au 28 février, réalisée par une équipe pluridisciplinaire de quatre experts, a couvert les réalisations du programme DIPECHO, du Plan Global, de la réponse au séisme du 12 janvier ainsi qu’à celle de la crise du choléra. Elle complète un dispositif prospectif plus complet qui a donné lieu, sur la période janvier à mai 2011, à la production de plusieurs produits : une note sur le lien entre l’urgence, la réhabilitation et le développement (LRRD), une revue documentaire approfondie ainsi qu’une série de restitutions visuelles en format vidéo.


 Evaluation en temps réel en Haïti: 20 mois après le tremblement de terreIASCCompleted: August 2010
Published: 2012
Evaluation reports

Le présent rapport résume la deuxième phase de l’évaluation interorganisations en temps réel de l’intervention consécutive au tremblement de terre, vingt mois après la catastrophe,
exécutée par le Comité permanent interorganisations. Le tremblement de terre qui a frappé Haïti le 12 janvier 2010 a eu des effets dévastateurs sur les capacités nationales tant humaines qu’institutionnelles des secteurs public et privé. On estime que 230 000 personnes ont perdu la vie; 300 000 autres ont été blessées et plus d’un million se sont trouvées sans abri1. La situation humanitaire désastreuse a été aggravée par la vulnérabilité intrinsèque du pays et le haut niveau de pauvreté chronique. En réaction, la communauté internationale a déployé un massif effort de secours et cinquante cinq donateurs se sont engagés à verser 4,59 milliards de dollars sous forme de dons pour 2010 et 2011 en vue de la reconstruction du pays.

Étant donné l’ampleur de la catastrophe et de l’intervention humanitaire qui a suivi, le comité
permanent interorganisations a lancé une initiative à phases multiples pour demander aux décideurs aux niveaux national et au Siège, de tirer les enseignements utiles et d’apporter les rectifications nécessaires. L’équipe de pays humanitaire devrait être l’utilisatrice la plus directement concernée par le retour d’informations et les recommandations émanant de l’évaluation.

La première phase de l’évaluation interorganisations terminée en mai 2010 a porté sur la réponse initiale. La deuxième phase avait été d’abord envisagée pour octobre 20103 et s’orientait d’une manière prospective sur les questions de coordination interorganisations ou sur les difficultés opérationnelles rencontrées durant la phase de transition. Les opérations ont été différées en raison de l’épidémie de choléra qui s’est déclarée en octobre 2010 et des retards dans le démarrage de la phase de transition.

 Evaluation en temps réel en Haïti: 3 mois après le tremblement de terreIASCCompleted: August 2010
Published: 2010
Evaluation reports

 Le 12 Janvier 2010, un tremblement de terre d’une magnitude de 7.0 sur l’échelle de Richter frappe la capitale d’Haïti, Port-au-Prince et les zones avoisinantes. Ce séisme a eu des effets dévastateurs: plus de 230,0001 personnes ont été tuées et plusieurs dizaines de milliers blessées2. Plus de 2 millions de déplacés3 ont cherché refuge dans des camps informels dans et autour de la capitale, auprès de proches et dans les zones rurales. Les pertes matérielles représentent, selon les estimations, plus de 100% des ressources nationales. La situation humanitaire à Port-au-Prince et dans les provinces reste largement exacerbée par le haut niveau de pauvreté chronique préexistant au séisme en Haïti. L’échelle du désastre est comparable au tsunami qui a touché l’océan Indien en 2004, mais cette fois, le désastre se concentre sur une zone très limitée.

 Évaluation indépendante finale de la réponse d’Action contre la Faim en Eau, Assainissement et Hygiène à l’urgence postséisme du 12/01/2010 en HaïtiACF - Action Against Hunger, Groupe URDPublished: December 2012Evaluation reports

Le Groupe URD a été mandaté par Action Contre la Faim afin de réaliser l’évaluation externe finale du volet WaSH des interventions d’urgence en réponse au séisme du 12 janvier 2010, menées dans l’aire métropolitaine de Port au Prince, ainsi que les communes de Léogane et Gressier de janvier 2010 à décembre 2010. Le montant de ce volet s’élève en décembre 2010 à plus de 9 millions d’Euros. Les activités mises en oeuvre concernent les camps de déplacés et consistent principalement en un approvisionnement en eau d’urgence (station de potabilisation, approvisionnement par camion-citerne, réservoirs souples, rampes de distribution), la mise en place de dispositifs de gestion des excrétas d’urgence (latrines à fosse et latrines de chantier, avec système de vidange) et un volet promotion de l’hygiène conséquent. De plus, en Mai 2010, ACF a repris le programme d’approvisionnement en eau par camion citerne (Water Trucking) de la DINEPA. Trois semaines à Port au Prince en novembre-décembre 2010 étaient consacrées au processus d’évaluation, avec des entretiens, discussions de groupe et visites. Cette évaluation est basée sur les critères du DAC de l’OCDE. Elle émane de la volonté propre d’ACF qui souhaite tirer les leçons de cette expérience, afin de participer à l’amélioration de la qualité des projets menés dans des urgences comparables dans d’autres pays, ainsi que dans la phase de reconstruction en Haïti.

 Évaluation indépendante finale du projet 'Intervention d'urgence en Sécurité Alimentaire et Nutrition suite au tremblement de terre dans la région de Port au Prince (Haïti) le 12 janvier 2010'ACF - Action Against HungerStarted: August 2010
Published: June 2010
Evaluation reports

The objective of the evaluation is to draw lessons learned and recommendations regarding the relevance of the “double-sided” approach used in the urban context that is Port-au- Prince, after the January 12th earthquake. This approach consists of: First, blanket supplementary feeding (BSF) for families with children from 6 to 59 months and/or lactating and pregnant women; secondly, Fresh Food Vouchers distributions to the general population where eligible BSF families are located. The evaluation will contribute to the technical and methodological capitalisation for this type of intervention. The evaluation should as well look at program definition and implementation and propose specific and concrete recommendations, both as a response to the emergency and to the longer term needs facing the affected population.

 Évaluation indépendante finale du projet pour la réduction de l’impact des excrétas humains dans le département du Nord-Ouest, HaïtiACF - Action Against HungerPublished: April 2011Evaluation reports

Le projet « Réduction de l'impact des excrétas humains dans le département du Nord-Ouest, République d'Haiti » a été élaboré et exécuté par un consortium composé des ONG françaises Action contre la Faim (ACF) et Initiative Développement (ID) et de l'ONG haïtienne Ansam pou yon Demen Miyó en Ayiti (ADEMA), dans la période comprise entre septembre 2008 et mars 2011 (31 mois). Les objectifs du projet ont été formulés comme suit : Objectifs généraux : 1. Préserver les ressources naturelles dans le département du Nord-Ouest. 2. Réduire la mortalité et la morbidité liées à un assainissement insuffisant dans le département du Nord-Ouest. 3. Améliorer les conditions socio-économiques des populations du Nord-Ouest et renforcer leur dignité. Objectif spécifique : Renforcer les capacités des acteurs et des élus de 4 communes du département du Nord-Ouest à gérer l'eau potable et les excrétas humains, à prévenir les maladies liées à l'eau et l'assainissement.

 Évaluation indépendante finale du projet « Baby tentes » ACF programme nutrition/soutien psychosocial et psychologiqueACF - Action Against HungerPublished: August 2010Evaluation reports

ACF est intervenue à Port au Prince suite au séisme survenu le 12 janvier 2010 en couvrant les besoins alimentaires, en eau, en assainissement, grâce à un programme de support à l’allaitement maternel exclusif, des conseils et recommandations en hygiène, un soutien psychosocial pour une population affectée, privée d’habitats, dépourvue des moyens basiques de subsistance. Le projet baby-tente s’inscrit au centre d’une approche intégrée et pluridisciplinaire. Articulé à deux autres projets BSF et CNF (Coupon Nourriture Fraîche) l’organisation a tenté de répondre à la première phase de l’urgence en couvrant une population plus vulnérable composée de familles et de personnes déplacées dans des camps ne bénéficiant pas de l’accès à l’eau, à l’assainissement, et ne pouvant accéder à l’achat de vivres de première nécessité. Le projet babytente initié par ACF a couvert une population de femmes allaitantes, d’enfants de zéro à deux ans, de femmes enceintes ainsi que de bénéficiaires affectés psychologiquement par les conséquences de la catastrophe naturelle. L’approche intégrée et donc pluridisciplinaire des soins nutritionnels et des soins psychosociaux a permis de réduire et maîtriser les risques d’aggravation de la malnutrition tant d’un point de vue médical que psychologique en promouvant et soutenant l’allaitement maternel exclusif pour les enfants de moins de six mois ainsi que la poursuite ou la reprise de l’allaitement avec des compléments alimentaires jusqu’à l’âge de deux ans.

 Évaluation indépendante finale du renforcement de la diversification alimentaire et amélioration des capacités de résilience des ménages vulnérables urbains de Port au PrinceACF - Action Against HungerPublished: June 2012Evaluation reports

À la suite d'un précédent programme de distribution de coupons de produits frais (FFV) réalisé à Port-au-Prince en 2010, ACF a conçu un projet de prévention de la malnutrition chez les ménages très vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire via la promotion d'une consommation alimentaire diversifiée. Ce projet comportait trois volets: 1. La distribution de FV aux ménages vulnérables; 2. Le renforcement des compétences commerciales de petits commerçants qui vendent des produits alimentaires par le biais d'une formation; 3. Des activités de maraichage urbain pour que les bénéficiaires aient accès à une alimentation diversifiée grace à leur propre production agricole. Cette évaluation avait pour but d'évaluer le projet en fonction des critères établis par le Comité d'aide au développement (CAD) de l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE).

 Évaluation indépendante finale du réponse d’urgence à l’épidémie de choléra en HaïtiACF - Action Against HungerPublished: April 2011Evaluation reports

Le projet mis en oeuvre par ACF s'intitule "Réponse d'urgence suite a l’éruption de choléra dans les zones affectées par l'épidémie". L'objectif est de limiter et prévenir la propagation de l'épidémie de choléra dans les zones affectées (250 000 bénéficiaires). Au moment de la déclaration de l'épidémie en octobre 2010, ACF a choisi d'intervenir sur une première réponse d'urgence d'une période d'environ 5 mois.

L'évaluation finale externe permet d'apprécier les actions accomplies et les résultats obtenus. La prise de recul et l'impartialité vis-à-vis du projet et de ses acteurs permettent d'approfondir la réflexion et l'apprentissage en commun, aboutissant à l'élaboration de recommandations sur la logique d'intervention future au vu du contexte, des problématiques et des capacités et faiblesses des différentes parties prenantes. Ce rapport d'évaluation est le compte-rendu des investigations et des conclusions de l'évaluation finale externe menée dans le pays du 8 au 27 mars 2011.

 Evaluation of Australian funded programmes in response to the Haiti earthquake DFAT (formerly AusAID)Published: October 2010Evaluation reports

Contact: Cathie Hurst, Manager, Caribbean Section, AusAID,

 Evaluation of OCHA emergency response to the Haiti earthquakeUN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsCompleted: February 2011
Published: February 2011
Evaluation reports

Purpose: This evaluation will examine OCHA’s response policies, structures and processes and their overall effectiveness in execution of OCHA’s core coordination functions. It is expected that the evaluation will contribute to organizational thinking about emergency response in OCHA and derive lessons for improving future humanitarian response operations. The conclusions and recommendations shall be discussed by the SMT. A management response matrix shall be prepared within three months of the finalization of the report.

Objectives: 1. Examine whether meaningful results were achieved and whether OCHA successfully identified and performed its core coordination functions; 2. Examine the timeliness, relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of OCHA’s response to Haiti earthquake and produce lessons for improving future OCHA operations; 3. Review performance of all processes and structures employed during OCHA Haiti response; 4. Examine the extent to which the operation represents an appropriate response from OCHA in view of its mandate and priorities as laid out in the Strategic Framework; 5. Assess adequacy and utilization of existing OCHA policies and procedures in guiding the emergency response.

 Evaluation of SDC Humanitarian Aid: Emergency ReliefSDCPublished: June 2011Evaluation reports

SDC assessed SDC’s response in crisis situations. The evaluation considered the Emergency Relief (Immediate Response, Survival Assistance and Early Recovery) and covered the different results of bilateral and multilateral projects, programmes, contributions financed or co-financed by SDC’s funds.

The main purpose of this evaluation was to investigate some specific processes and results, learn lessons, improve policy and practice and enhance accountability, concerning the Emergency Relief.

The evaluation analysed the SDC Emergency Relief programmes/projects/contributions in:

  • humanitarian aid (HA) crisis situations representative of SDC HA responses to natural disasters (Haiti and Sumatra), and 
  • HA crisis situations representative of SDC HA responses to conflicts (Gaza and Sudan).
 Evaluation of the activities of the Dutch Cooperating Aid Organisations involved in the SHO Haiti Action covering the year 2010MFA NetherlandsPublished: 10 March 2011Evaluation reports

Objectives: The main objective of the Evaluation is to provide insight in the effects of the support provided by the SHO partners to Haiti during 2010 aiming to provide lessons for them and the SHO as a whole and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The evaluation also serves an accountability purpose by reporting how the funds provided by the Ministry and the general public in the Netherlands have been put to use and to what effect. In order to serve its accountability function for the Haitian stakeholders the final report will also be provided in French language.

 Evaluation of the AgeUK/DEC funded HelpAge project in Haiti Phase 1 and Phase 2.1: "Emergency response and ensuring inclusion of the needs and capacities of older people in Haiti's reconstruction"DEC, HelpAge InternationalStarted: February 2010
Completed: July 2011
Published: October 2011
Evaluation reports


Following the earthquake of January 2010, the emergency response in Haiti has been
particularly difficult due to the intensity of the disaster in a long term environmentally,
educationally, economically and governance impoverished nation and which also directly
affected those responsible for the response. HelpAge had had a regionally managed very small presence in Haiti for a year when the emergency shifted the management of the Haiti
intervention to HelpAge’s World Wide Emergency department.

Traditionally, DEC funding covers two phases of an emergency, Phase 1 for 6 months and a
Phase 2 for up to one year. Due to the large quantity of funds raised, the Haiti response
included a third phase, also for up to a year. HelpAge submitted proposals for each phase for
a total of 30 months. This evaluation occurred during the 20th month and is effectively a
midterm evaluation of what started as an emergency response but has evolved into a recovery and development phase as HelpAge intends to remain active in Haiti after the DEC response.

Phase 1, which ran for 6 months between February and July 2010 provided critical relief
services to 24,000 OPs in 212 IDP ‘camps’ (out of the nearly 2,000) and to 417 OPs in the
area’s 8 nursing homes. The effort cost £816,874 from the DEC and £1,074,016 from other
sources and concentrated on the delivery of food and NFIs, appropriate healthcare including
mental health/psychosocial support and home care and support. This also included the
production and broadcasting of radio programs, the training of medical and paramedical staff
on OP care and distribution of 5,300 ToughStuff solar kits.

Phase 2.1 ran for 12 months between August 2010 and July 2011 and provided post relief
services to more than 12,000 OPs in 68 camps in 12 communes through the creation of 101
OPAs and the use of 203 community HBCs. The effort cost £2,174,700 from the DEC and
£43,988 from other sources and concentrated on the 3 objectives of providing increased
protection and empowerment to advocate for OP rights and most pressing needs, improving
OP livelihoods primarily through cash transfers and access to appropriate healthcare including mental health support primarily through contracted service providers. Additional activities included additional radio and TV programming, the distribution of 6,655 mobile phones, more training (DRR, psycho-social) and access to transitional shelters.

Phase 2.2 is underway for 12 months between August 2011 and July 2012 and has for
objectives to strengthen and increase the self-reliance the OPAs, to increase the training,
networking, advocating for and supporting of DRR activities, and access to shelter, healthcare
and legal services. This includes the distribution of 3,634 additional ToughStuff kits.
The evaluation lasted one month and is based on the information acquired from project
documentation, 171 sampled beneficiaries in and around camps in 4 localities, attendance at a day-long joint meeting of all the OPA committees, 4 focus group discussions with OPA
committees, 6 FGD with OPA members, 7 HelpAge Haiti staff, 8 staff from the HelpAge London office and 6 external key informants in Haiti, 5 direct observations at OPA offices and in one camp.

 Evaluation of the DEC funded CAFOD interventions in Haiti - Phase 1 and Phase 2CAFODPublished: 1 January 2012Evaluation reports

When the earthquake hit Haiti in January 2010, CAFOD responded through international Caritas agencies committed to Haiti in two critical areas: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and shelter.

In the first months, activities included providing water, public pit latrines, hygiene kits and hand washing stations to about 50,000 people in 12 camps. Phase 2 ran for 18 months between August 2010 and January 2012 and had a strong development component by implementing a 100 house pilot project in rural communities in order to ensure permanent rural house reconstruction.

The evaluation lasted one month and is based on the information acquired from project documentation gathered from the 4 agencies, 33 sampled WASH beneficiaries in 2 CRS urban neighbourhoods (CRRPs), 4 WASH beneficiary focus group discussions, 2 WASH Committee members focus group discussions, 2 house beneficiary focus group discussions, 1 house builders focus group discussion, KII with 6 CAFOD staff from the London office and 8 Haiti partner staff in Haiti, 6 visits for direct observation in the field of 2 WASH neighbourhoods, 2 ex-WASH camps and 2 Shelter villages.


 Evaluation of the DEC-funded programme in Haiti - Phase 1 and Phase 2.1HelpAge InternationalStarted: August 2011
Completed: January 2012
Published: February 2012
Evaluation reports


a. To assess the extent to which the programme met its objectives as set out in the Phase 1 and Phase 2.1 proposals with particular emphasis on the appropriateness, timeliness, efficiency and effectiveness of the intervention.

b. To learn lessons from the experience in order to improve HelpAge’s future emergency interventions and humanitarian assistance for older people more generally.

 Evaluation of the effectiveness of the rehabilitation response to the earthquake in Haiti London School of Hygiene & Tropical MedicineStarted: January 2011
Completed: October 2011
Research, reports and studies


  • To assess the delivery of rehabilitation services for people with disabilities in emergency contexts
  • To assess how disability was mainstreamed through partnerships (by whom, with whom and how?)
  • To formulate recommendations to CBM and its partner organisations in terms of provision of adequate disability inclusive response to disasters
 Evaluation of the ERRF Component of the Haiti Emergency Response (ERF) Fund UN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsCompleted: February 2011
Published: February 2011
Plans, policy and strategy

This is the inception report for an evaluation of the Emergency Relief Response Fund (ERRF) in Haiti. It notes two clarifications about the scope of the evaluation as described in the terms of reference. It includes a review of stakeholder responsibilities, the methodology to be used, the timeframe, the tentative field mission plan, the proposed table of contents for the final report, a list of key contacts, the evaluation questions and the methods to be used to answer them, a stakeholder map, the questions for the planned survey, and the interview guide for key informants.

Objectives: The purpose of the evaluation is to take stock of the ERRF since its 2008 activation in Haiti and to provide feedback on its relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and connectedness to stakeholders, with the aim of highlighting ERRF operational strengths and areas for improvement while also noting anecdotal evidence on results that may be directly attributed to the ERRF. The evaluation is a part of the requirement set under the ERRF donor agreement conditions.

The evaluation will explore how the ERRF is contributing towards a more timely, predictable, effective and accountable humanitarian response. It will assess both the management processes and operational aspects of the fund.

The objectives of the evaluation are to:

1) Assess to what extent the ERRF was able to meet its primary objective of supporting humanitarian organizations and local authorities in responding to natural disasters by providing rapid and flexible funding to partners to implement projects to meet unforeseen needs, as well as additional objectives of strengthening coordination mechanisms (including the role of HC and of the clusters), supporting joint initiatives, and strengthening links with the long term development processes;

2) Identify strengths and weaknesses in operational processes (i.e. governance, project selection,decision making process for fund allocations);

3) Review standard ALNAP criteria including: the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, connectedness and cross-cutting issues (such as gender and vulnerable groups);

4) Identify (a) any improvements that would help strengthen the functioning of the ERRF, and (b) areas working particularly well which might be systematized and applied in other ERRF contexts.

 Evaluation of the Global Emergency Relief by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) SDCStarted: August 2010Evaluation reports

Haiti will feature as one of the key case studies in the evaluation of SDC's worldwide humanitarian operations.
Dates: Field visit to Haiti and Dominican Republic 22nd Aug - 5th Sept.
Contact: Claude de Ville de Goyet, Particip GmbH,

 Evaluation of the International Organization for Migration's Ongoing Activities on Support to the Flash Appeal for the Haiti Earthquake and Cholera Outbreak IOM - International Organization for Migration, SIDAPublished: August 2011Evaluation reports

The purpose of this external evaluation is to assess the performance and whenever possible the outcome and impact of the activities carried out by IOM, with a main focus on funding received from Sida, in order to identify lessons learnt and good practices for IOM’s implementation of projects and management. The evaluation was planned to take place during the implementation in order to provide IOM Haiti programme managers with useful inputs that could be used as suggestions before the end of the project itself and for the implementation of other projects.

The evaluation specific objectives are:

  • To assess the projects through evaluation criteria (relevance of the intervention to the humanitarian situation, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability. A particular attention will be paid to the coverage, coherence, connectedness, coordination among other subjects) with a particular focus on the results (Results-Based Evaluation) and in particular to identify the lessons learnt and related recommendations based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of results in terms of the changes occurred in the lives of beneficiaries and the degree to which the level of previous living condition have improved.
  • To identify best practices that could be applied on a wider scale in the activities implementation, taking into account the particular profile and vulnerability of the target beneficiaries.

The evaluation should also serve as accountability purposes towards the donor, in particular towards the Sida-IOM agreement’, and partners and providing transparent information between programmes and IOM units allowing improvement in the planning and management of current and future projects.

 Evaluation to assess Merlin's Emergency Response in HaitiMerlinCompleted: February 2012
Published: February 2012
Evaluation reports

The executive summary and Merlin's management response to an Evaluation of our response to both the 2010 Haiti Earthquake and 2010-11 Cholera outbreak. This evaluation was conducted in accordance with the DECs evaluation policy.

 Evaluation of OCHA Response to the Haiti Earthquake UN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsPublished: 1 January 2011Evaluation reports

This evaluation was commissioned in line with OCHA's Evaluation Strategy for 2010-2013, which calls for an evaluation of every declared corporate emergency response. The evaluation was carried out between 
August and September 2010, and examined OCHA’s response policies, structures and processes and their 
overall effectiveness in execution of OCHA’s core coordination function


 External Evaluation of the Haiti Emergency Relief and Response Fund (ERRF)Published: 18 April 2011Evaluation reports


The Haiti Emergency Relief and Response Fund (ERRF) was activated in 2008 (with start-up funding by Sweden) with the goal of enabling the international community to better support local authorities by providing rapid and flexible funding to meet unforeseen needs in the event of natural disasters. It received approximately $85.2 million from more than 40 donors beginning August 2008. The evaluation found that against a background of overwhelming constraints, the main strengths of the Haiti ERRF include flexibility, proximity, approachability, alignment inside the cluster architecture (fostering coordination), visibility for the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and ability to leverage $163 million in additional funds (indicating that approved projects were worth more than three times their weight). The evaluation found ERRF weaknesses to be bound more by the design of the mechanism than its manifestation in Haiti. They include internal contradictions such as the simultaneous emphasis on lifesaving and recovery/development and a design for field-based efforts outside the CAP, but subject to 50 per cent redirection by exceptional decisions made at a higher level. Other weaknesses are weak support to government and national NGOs and inadequate monitoring and communication.


 External evaluation of the Rental Support Cash Grant Approach Applied to Return and Relocation Programs in HaitiConcern, CRS, IFRC, SIDA, World VisionPublished: January 2013Evaluation reports

This report is an external evaluation of the Rental Support Cash Grant Approach/Return and Relocation Programs (RSCGA or RS) in Haiti implemented by Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Concern Worldwide, International Federation of Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), International Organization for Migration (IOM), J/P Haitian Relief Organization (J/P HRO) and World Vision (WVI).

The evaluators find that the RSCGA represents a tremendous achievement. It has illustrated the courage to undertake a sensitive operational challenge, developed a methodology that ensured order over potential chaos, delivered on the promises it made to its stakeholders and beneficiaries, while ensuring that grantees were supported in making informed choices about their future.


 Faire fi des réalités! Problématiques foncières, institutions locales et action humanitaire après le tremblement de terre en HaïtiHPGPublished: 1 September 2012Research, reports and studies
 Federation-wide Livelihood Program EvaluationIFRCStarted: October 2012
Published: January 2013
Evaluation reports

On January 12th 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck Haiti’s capital Port-au-­-Prince and its surrounding areas. The earthquake was devastating. More than 220,000 people were killed, with many more left injured and homeless. Due to unplanned urban development and poor construction quality, the level of material destruction was unprecedented. The Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies responded to the emergency and some of its members have implemented livelihood interventions. IFRC Technical Movement Coordination commissioned this evaluation. It was envisaged as a learning exercise and an assessment of the current situation in terms of accountability. The evaluation analyzed information according to OECD/DAC criteria: relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, coverage and connectedness, accountability, sustainability and impact and complies with ALNAP ethical guidelines and with key evaluation principles. The evaluation took place in October 2012 and had a first phase of data collection based on documentation, followed by a field visit in Haiti where interviews were carried-­-out as well as two field visits to project sites with focus group discussions.

 Final Independent Evaluation of Action Against Hunger (ACF) Post-Earthquake Emergency Response in HaitiACF - Action Against HungerStarted: October 2010
Published: October 2010
Evaluation reports

This document outlines the Terms of Reference for the evaluation of ACF's emergency response following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. The general objective of the response was to meet the immediate needs of the population affected by the earthquake and support building reconstruction. Specifically, the activities aimed to ensure access to safe drinking water and provide sanitation for 75,000 affected people; to meet the immediate needs for food and non-food products of the affected populations; to promote and support breastfeeding amongst children under 12 months; and to provide psycho-social support for people in distress and to enhance their coping mechanisms.

 Final Independent Evaluation of the 'Emergency Intervention in Nutrition and Mental Health - Earthquake in Port-au-Prince (Haïti)' programmeACF - Action Against HungerStarted: July 2010
Published: June 2010
Evaluation reports

This document outlines the Terms of Reference for the evaluation of ACF's "Emergency Intervention in Nutrition and Mental Health" programme implemented after the 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The general objective of this ACF programme was to prevent mortality among the earthquake-affected population. For this purpose, the programme aimed to provide psychological and/or nutritional support to young children, as well as pregnant and lactating women and people in distress. This entailed the following activities:

  • Coordination with partners and advocacy for breastfeeding promotion, as well as adequate use of infant formula with respect to the “International Code on the Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes”
  • Installation of “baby friendly tents” providing support to breastfeeding mothers and infants feeding (using RUIF for infants who cannot be breastfed), and psychological support for children and caretakers
  • Sensitisation about breastfeeding and psychosocial issues in the “baby friendly tents”, and at gathering points of earthquake affected people (sensitisation of key persons, diffusion of radio messages)


 Final Independent Evaluation of the Action Against Hunger (ACF) Post Earthquake Emergency Response in Haiti, 2010ACF - Action Against HungerPublished: December 2012Evaluation reports

The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the three-month deployment of ACF in response to the needs of the Haitian population following the January 12, 2010 earthquake which affected the urban area of Port- au-Prince and surrounding areas, and its ability to maintain its current activities on the other regions of Haiti. The evaluation will cover five key areas relating to ACF’s emergency response in Haiti:

  • Programmes (including the timeliness and appropriatedness of the response as well as the integration of lessons learned from previous responses)
  • Systems (including Human Resources management, logistics, administrative and security aspects)
  • Funding
  • Communication & Coordination
  • Advocacy


 Final Independent Evaluation of the emergency response to the cholera outbreak in October 2010 in HaitiACF - Action Against HungerStarted: October 2010
Published: 2010
Evaluation reports

The objective of this evaluation is to assess ACF’s emergency response to the cholera outbreak following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. The evaluation will focus on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the response including: The programme's design and implementation; Human resources mobilisation (expatriate and national) and the adjustment of the HR organisation of the mission to the emergency; and funding mobilisation (including the way the co-funding of the project has been designed).

ACF-IN promotes and uses evaluation as a tool to enhance operational performance as well as a way to increase ACF-IN accountability towards beneficiaries, partners and donors. The evaluation conducted must always comply with donor requirements and / or ACF evaluation policies.

 Final Independent Evaluation of the project for 'Support to Vulnerable Persons in Communities of Nord Artibonite Department that Received Influxes of Persons Displaced in the Wake of the January 12, 2010 Earthquake'ACF - Action Against HungerPublished: September 2011Evaluation reports

A magnitude 7 earthquake which struck near Port au Prince on 12 January 2010 caused wide spread death and destruction in the nation’s capital and surrounding cities. It also caused a large-scale displacement of persons to areas not affected by the quake, particular area of origin. As a follow-up to an immediate cash for work (CFW) response in support of IDPs and host families, ACF planned and proposed a project which entailed proving food vouchers to particularly vulnerable households in association with sensitisation and training designed to improve household knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) with regard to the consumption of nutritious foods rich in important micro-nutrients as part of a varied diet. The training also sought to improve hygiene practices among family members. Finally the project sought to consolidate the organisation of local sanitation committees (CLA in French) along with their capacity to produce chlorine for use in treating water for drinking and cooking. The project was also expected to spur increased demand for fresh, local produce, which would over time spur an increase in local production to the benefit of rural dwellers/communities.

 Focus Group Discussion Guide: Voices of Beneficiaries Haiti 2010HAP-IPublished: 2010Tools, guidelines and methodologies

HAP-International is a partnership of humanitarian agencies dedicated to building a system of self-regulation based upon quality management and accountability principles, with a specific commitment to making humanitarian action accountable to its intended beneficiaries. In addition to providing capacity building support to members and other agencies enrolled in the certification scheme, contributing to research on the cost effectiveness of quality management of humanitarian action, and establishing a system of quality management certification, HAP-International seeks to demonstrate to the “humanitarian system” more widely the potential for improving humanitarian outcomes through quality management and quality assurance.

As part of HAP-International’s annual report we seek to record the experiences and perceptions of disaster- affected persons on the quality and accountability of aid that they received in the past year. This year we are planning a series of focus group discussions in a number of locations in PaP to capture this information in relation to the earthquake response. As a results of this work, we will be able to share issues that are consistently raised by aid recipients and to highlight some of the general themes and trends of aid efforts in Haiti, with particular focus on quality and accountability as expressed by those affected by the earthquake. The information will provide an insight into beneficiaries’ perceptions of the quality and accountability of aid within various locations and will be used for learning purposes, to help shape future responses of HAP member and non-member agencies.

 From a Box to Sleep in to a House to Live in: Urban Issues in Port-au-PrinceGroupe URDPublished: 11 January 2012Audio-visual material


This documentary from Groupe URD highlights the organisation's work on urban humanitarian issues in Haiti.

 From Food Aid to Food Assistance - Working in Partnership: A Strategic Evaluation - Vol. I Full ReportWFPPublished: 5 January 2012Evaluation reports
 From Relief to Recovery: Supporting good governance in post-earthquake Haiti OxfamPublished: 6 January 2011Research, reports and studies
The earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 had a devastating impact on the already vulnerable island nation, leaving more than 200,000 people dead and over one million homeless. In October 2010, Haiti was struck by a second disaster: as of mid December 2010, a cholera outbreak has affected more than 122,000 people, leaving at least 2,600 dead. The humanitarian response that has taken place over the past 12 months has saved countless lives by providing water, sanitation, shelter, food aid, and other vital assistance to millions of people. Yet, as Haiti approaches the first anniversary of the earthquake, neither the Haitian state nor the international community is making significant progress in reconstruction. This is deeply disappointing for the many Haitians who hoped that the country would make a fresh start and that their lives would improve, but it is not so surprising. Well before the earthquake, Haiti suffered from extreme poverty, gross inequality, chronic political instability, and weak, corrupt state institutions. Even in developed countries, disaster recovery can take a considerable length of time. In Japan, for example, it took more than seven years for the city of Kobe to recover from the 1995 earthquake. However, even a steep hill can be climbed. To deal with the challenges created by the earthquake, the new Haitian government should urgently work together with the international community to create the conditions needed to allow people to leave the displacement camps and rebuild their livelihoods.
 Funding Reconstruction: Role of Finance in Post-Disaster Permanent Housing Reconstruction and RetrofittingInterAction Published: 2 May 2012Conference, training & meeting documents

About Build Change:

? US 501(c)3 international non-profit social enterprise with
programs in Indonesia, China and Haiti
? Founded in 2004 by Elizabeth Hausler, bricklayer and Ph.D.
earthquake engineer from University of California, Berkeley
? Goals: Design earthquake resistant houses; train builders,
homeowners, government officials and engineers to build them;
change construction practice permanently
? Mission: Greatly reduce deaths, injuries, economic losses from
housing collapses due to earthquakes in developing countries
? Impacts: 73,000 people living in houses improved by Build
Change, over 12,000 people trained; no damage to minimum
standard houses in 2009 earthquake; governments adopting Build
Change model

 Global Humanitarian Assistance: Pooled Funding Mechanisms and Large-Scale Disasters - Case Studies of Haiti and PakistanDevelopment InitiativesPublished: April 2011Research, reports and studies

Over the last two decades there have been 7,837 natural disasters in over 200 countries. These disasters have cost US$1.6 trillion in damage and affected 4.4 billion people. The destruction and devastation that natural disasters cause cannot be underestimated.
Disasters can range in severity and the number of people that are affected can depend on various factors including the density of the population where the disaster occurs, the quality of existing infrastructure, the provision of basic social services and the speed of response.
Although many natural events such as earthquakes and tsunamis are currently almost impossible to predict, the areas of the world where they occur have been very well mapped out for risk of occurrence. Others, such as floods, cyclones and some droughts are regular, year on year. Preventing either of these from turning from events to disasters can be mitigated through effective planning, preparedness and infrastructure development.


 Global Impact Report 2011American Red CrossPublished: November 2011Research, reports and studies

The report provides information on American Red Cross activities and achievements during fiscal year 2011 (July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011), as well as information on revenues received, and the share of program expenditures by category of intervention, region, and major disaster-affected country.

 Guidance with Collaborating with Volunteer and Technical CommunitiesPublished: July 2013Tools, guidelines and methodologies

 This document is for formal humanitarian entities that are interested in collaborating with V&TCs. It will best fit the needs of organizations that have had exposure to V&TCs and their work, and now seek practical advice on proceeding with a deployment. The guid- ance aims to ensure that actors understand the dynamics of working with V&TCs, better formulate requests and maximize the benefits of such collaboration.

This document does not attempt to resolve ongoing discussions about verification, reliability, the added value of crowdsourcing, privacy and other issues, which are being addressed in other forums.

We extend our gratitude to the individuals within the humanitarian organizations and V&TCs who shared their insight, knowledge and experience on drafts of this document.

 Guide Technique Pour La gestion Des Debris: L'Experience Haitienne 2010-2012UNDPPublished: 2013Programme/project reviews

Ce guide veut, sur la base de l’expérience acquise par le PNUD en Haïti, partager les principales considérations conceptuelles, programmatiques et opérationnelles pour l’implémentation de programmes de gestion de débris, dans une perspective pratique d’apprentissage, basée sur
les réussites et les échecs de l’expérience, en portant une attention particulière sur les actions placées sous sa responsabilité.


 Haiti - One Year After, A Review of Medecins sans Frontieres' Humanitarian Aid OperationsMSFCompleted: January 2011
Published: January 2011
Programme/project reviews

This report intends to share with the general public, the people of Haiti, and our supporters a detailed breakdown of how the funds donated to MSF for the earthquake emergency relief effort have been used to meet the needs of the Haitian people in the year since the earthquake hit. It attempts to outline the choices made by MSF in deploying its operations, the challenges we faced, the lessons we learned, and our plans and perspectives for the
The report is broken into three sections. The first covers MSF’s operations in Haiti from January 12, 2010 to October 31, 2010 in three phases: the emergency (January 12 through April 30); the post-emergency (May 1 through October 21); and the cholera emergency (October 22 through the present). The second section provides a breakdown of the financial resources spent by MSF in the first year of the emergency. The final section discusses
the current challenges and MSF’s future plans.

 Haïti : En quête de réponses adaptéesGroupe URD, MedAir, Swiss SolidarityStarted: January 2010
Completed: January 2014
Published: January 2014
Research, reports and studies

Face aux besoins majeurs résultant des impacts des désastres qui se sont succédés depuis le séisme du 12 Janvier 2010 en Haïti, la Chaîne du Bonheur (CdB) a pu soutenir les efforts de ses ONG partenaires qui se sont fortement engagées sur le terrain, où certaines étaient par ailleurs présentes depuis longtemps.

Les programmes de 8 ONG, objet de 80% du fonds Séisme Haïti de la CdB sur la phase reconstruction, ont couvert des secteurs clés pour les populations : reconstruction des habitats et des écoles, approvisionnement en eau, mitigation des risques liés à l’assainissement et à l’érosion des sols, sécurité économique alimentaire. Ces programmes ont fait l’objet d’un mécanisme de suivi-évaluation itérative, dont 5 ONG pour des programmes de reconstruction (Armée du Salut, Caritas Suisse, Croix-Rouge suisse, EPER et Medair), 3 ONG pour des programmes eau, assainissement et hygiène (Croix-Rouge suisse, EPER, Medair), l’ONG Helvetas pour des programmes de réduction des risques et 2 ONG pour l’appui à la relance économique (« livelihood », Terre des Hommes Suisse et ADRA).


 Haiti and beyond: Getting it right in crisis information managementPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies

Much more can and must be done to strengthen disaster preparedness and crisis information management. There are no longer excuses for ill-preparedness or haphazard aid response. We already know much of what needs to be done and going forward requires requisite funding coupled with political will of the UN system and international community. Some key ideas and suggestions in this regard are, The accelerated development and population of easily accessible datasets with essential information shared across UN and other aid agencies, to help identify, prepare for and mitigate disasters. Developing ICTs that work better in, and are more resilient to austere, traumatic environments. Significantly improving interoperability across all systems between UN agencies and other key platforms outside, including UN OneResponse, Ushahidi, Sahana and InSTEDD’s Emergency Information Service. Using endogenous technologies, help communities develop their own capacities and capabilities for disaster early warning, prevention and resilience, is vital. Greater cooperation between governments and NGOs, based on standard operating procedures governing information sharing to help aid work. Global and local business, as we have seen in Haiti, also has a key role to play in generating and sustaining financial inflows and strengthening aid. They need to be partners in crisis information management. The development of a comprehensive crisis information management preparedness and assessment tool box, including appraisal mechanisms, especially in and for disaster prone regions and countries.


 Haiti DEV 200150 Support for the National School Meals Programme: An Operation EvaluationWFPPublished: January 2015Evaluation reports

The evaluation covers WFP’s development project (DEV) 200150 “Support for the National School Meals Programme” (January 2012-June 2014). It was intended for both accountability and learning purposes and focuses on assessing: i) the appropriateness and coherence of the operation; ii) its results; and iii) the factors explaining the results. The evaluation assessed the following activities: school feeding, micronutrient supplementation as well as capacity development. The evaluation, which makes a number of recommendations for the future, was managed and conducted by a consultancy firm, with fieldwork taking place in October 2014.

 Haiti Development Project 200150 "Support for the National School Meals Programme": An Operation EvaluationWFPPublished: January 2015Evaluation reports

The evaluation covers WFP’s development project (DEV) 200150 “Support for the National School Meals Programme” (January 2012-June 2014). It was intended for both accountability and learning purposes and focuses on assessing: i) the appropriateness and coherence of the operation; ii) its results; and iii) the factors explaining the results. The evaluation assessed the following activities: school feeding, micronutrient supplementation as well as capacity development. The evaluation, which makes a number of recommendations for the future, was managed and conducted by a consultancy firm, with fieldwork taking place in October 2014.

 Haiti earthquake - Four-year progress reportIFRCPublished: January 2014Research, reports and studies

The magnitude of the 2010 earthquake and the resulting relief and recovery operations have changed Haiti irrevocably.

Over the last four years, amidst overwhelming suffering and destruction, the Haitian people have worked tirelessly to rebuild their homes, communities and lives.

The Red Cross Red Crescent has been a proud partner in this process. Providing basic support such as food, water, shelter and health care has been essential but it is the long-term projects, aimed at helping communities meet their own needs, which are finally coming to fruition.

This report spans the Red Cross Red Crescent operations from January 2010 to September 2013, with a focus on the fourth year of the operation during which thousands of people have moved to more-secure, sustainable accommodation, communities country-wide have started to adopt safer health practices and families have taken important steps towards recovering their income sources and, ultimately, their independence.

The Haitian Red Cross has also been transformed and is now bigger and stronger, and is reaching more vulnerable people than it has done ever before. Ensuring the National Society is able to sustain the increase in operational capacity that has been built through earthquake operations is critical. This will include maintaining a high level of support to the Government, through the National Society’s auxiliary role, to ensure the public authorities are also well equipped to meet the needs of vulnerable people in years to come.

Sadly, despite these achievements, there are still thousands of people who remain in great need and there is undoubtedly much more to be done. But the combined force of the Haitian people, along with the Red Cross Red Crescent, means that together we are well placed to do it.


 Haiti earthquake 2010 - Real-time reviewHumanitarian CoalitionStarted: May 2010Programme/project reviews

Purpose: In addition to joint fundraising, the Humanitarian Coalition members made a commitment to working together to improve program delivery and accountability standards. A significant effort has been given to the development of joint programming standards, a Monitoring and Evaluation Framework and comprehensive financial accountability protocols. As a part of this commitment the Humanitarian Coalition is organizing its first Real Time Review (RTR). Implementing a joint RTR in the first phase of a response requires a very flexible approach from the RTR team in order to fit in with the demands and challenges facing the members’ team/s, partners and the affected population.

 Haiti earthquake 2010 - Two-year progress reportIFRCPublished: 2011Research, reports and studies

This report spans the Red Cross Red Crescent operations from January 2010 to November 2011, with a focus on the second year of the operations, marking the end of the prolonged emergency phase and a transition into more sustainable, community-driven solutions.

The emergency distributions of tarpaulins, hygiene kits and safe drinking water that dominated the Red Cross Red Crescent operation during the first year have given way to financial support to small businesses, vocational training to help people back into the job market, a large camp decongestion programme offering rental support and relocation grants, and the provision of transitional shelters to tens of thousands of people.

The winding down of relief distributions in 2011 marks the end of one chapter but the story of Haiti’s recovery is far from over. Basic humanitarian needs remain for many of Haiti’s most vulnerable communities, including the thousands who remain in camps. Supporting families to move home is a priority but this will take time and the needs of the most vulnerable must not be forgotten.

Through 2012 and beyond, the Red Cross Red Crescent remains committed to continuing to work side by side with local communities to build resilience, strengthen recovery and protect livelihoods.


 Haiti Earthquake Agricultural Cluster StrategyPublished: January 2010Plans, policy and strategy

The agricultural cluster strategy in the aftermath of the earthquake is a living document, prepared, shared and discussed by the cluster member Organizations in order to guide in a participatory manner the work of the cluster.

The cluster’s primary aim is, in coordination with the Government, to support the food production and job creation of the people of Haiti after the 12th January earthquake that devastated Port au Prince, Jacmel, Leougane and the rural areas in the surroundings and between these cities.

With strong interconnections between the rural and urban areas, the earthquake’s destruction in important urban centres has rapidly transmitted in a radial manner to rural areas. The earthquake effects could be classified into two different broad categories:

• Direct effects through the destruction of houses, death of relatives, destruction of job places

• Indirect or spill over effects.

The normalization of the Haitians’ life, will largely depend to a large extend on the ability to restore destroyed livelihoods, food production and income opportunities.

 Haiti earthquake January 2010: damage assessment Published: 2010Data visualisation

A comprehensive atlas of all damage caused in Haiti by the magnitude 7.0 earthquake on 12 January 2010 is now available to help planning recovery and reconstruction measures. The atlas, based on the comparison between pre-disaster satellite imagery and post-disaster aerial photos, provides an overview of building damage in the main affected cities in Haiti showing that almost 60,000 buildings were either destroyed or very heavily damaged. A number of critical infrastructures such as government buildings, educational structures and hospitals have collapsed or are severely damaged.

These findings follow the preliminary rapid damage assessment carried out by the JRC's Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC) based on the analysis of very high resolution satellite imagery acquired before and after the disaster.

 Haiti Earthquake Relief: One Year ReportAmerican Red CrossPublished: 2011Research, reports and studies

Before January 12, many Haitians already
struggled to make ends meet.
According to the United Nations and the
World Bank:
• More than 70 percent of Haitians lived on
less than $2 a day.
• There were roughly 2.5 doctors per
10,000 Haitians.
• One in three Haitians lacked access to
safe, drinkable municipal water.
• Fewer than one in five people had access
to adequate sanitation.
• Most of Haiti—or 95 percent—was
deforested, undermining agriculture and
greatly increasing vulnerability to natural

After January 12, the challenges facing
Haitians have grown exponentially.
The Red Cross has responded and is
• Cash grants and loans to help 220,000
• Medical services for nearly 217,000
• Safe, drinkable water for 317,000 people
every day.
• Latrines for 265,000 people.
• Disaster preparedness training and other
activities that have reached almost 72,000


 Haiti Earthquake ResponseArup, OxfamPublished: 1 March 2010Research, reports and studies

This report provides a summary of the 10 day assignment carried out by Kubilay Hicyilmaz
and Kathy Gibbs from Arup on behalf of Oxfam GB between 24 February and 6 March
2010. Both are chartered structural engineers with 10+ years experience including
specialist expertise in damage assessment and seismic design. They were commissioned
through Arup International Development which operates on not-for-profit basis.
The aim of this assignment was to contribute to the emergency response and recovery by providing technical guidance on how to conduct rapid damage assessment of residential buildings that had been damaged by the earthquake. This is important in order to encourage families to return home to houses which are habitable and/or repairable rather than linger incamps. More specifically Arup's objectives were:

  • Review existing residential building typologies and how they responded to the earthquake
  • Develop rapid and detailed evaluation procedures to enable local engineers, builders and architects to identify seismic damages to residential buildings based on ACT-20-1 Field Manual: Post earthquake Safety Evaluation of Buildings: Second Edition.
  • Make recommendations on how to categorize safety risk
  • Provide recommendations for safe construction practice when demolishing unsafe buildings.
 Haiti Earthquake Response: Emerging evaluation lessonsALNAP, DFID, OECD DAC, UNEGPublished: June 2011Lessons papers

 This quick guide for humanitarian policy makers and practitioners distils key findings and emerging lessons from a selection of available evaluations on the response to Haiti’s earthquake in January 2010 which killed 220,000 people. Much went well. Haitians themselves responded immediately with life-saving initiatives and moved to areas of relative safety and security where assistance was, or could be made, available. There was a phenomenal response from a wide range of actors in the international community. Many lives were saved and livelihoods restored. Not all, however, went well. Old mistakes were repeated and new ones made.


The report is organised around the evaluation criteria of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), as adapted for the humanitarian community by ALNAP.2 These criteria are relevance and appropriateness; connectedness; coherence; coverage; efficiency and effectiveness.3 This structure helps to reinforce evaluative thinking about the programmes and projects carried out (or underway) in Haiti. The report highlights emerging lessons and presents supporting findings.

 Haiti earthquake response: evaluation of Oxfam GB's DEC-funded programmeOxfamCompleted: June 2011
Published: June 2011
Evaluation reports

An evaluation carried out as part of the committment to the DEC. The benchmakrs used were the DEC priorities for accountability, Oxfam's own standards and principles and international standards such as Sphere.

 Haiti Earthquake, January 2010 - Education Cluster Lessons Learned ReportPublished: 30 June 2010Lessons papers

This report summarizes initial thoughts and findings related to the Education Cluster’s response to the Haiti earthquake on 12 January 2010. Given the scale of the disaster, and the size and complexity of the humanitarian response that followed, the Education Cluster has conducted a lessons learned exercise to reflect, capture and learn from the experience. This document focuses on the first few months after the disaster, up to the end of May 2010.

 Haiti Earthquake: Breaking New Ground in the Humanitarian Information LandscapeCompleted: July 2010
Published: July 2010
Research, reports and studies
 Haiti earthquake: Five-year progress reportIFRCPublished: 8 January 2015Evaluation reports

The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 was one of the biggest natural disasters in recent history, resulting in over 1.5 million internally displaced people, unprecedented human losses and material damage. This report spans the Red Cross Red Crescent operations from January 2010 to November 2014, marking five years of emergency and recovery operations.


 Haiti External Evaluation of the Emergency Relief & Response Fund (ERRF), 2008-2011 UN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsPublished: 18 April 2011Evaluation reports

The Haiti Emergency Relief & Response Fund (ERRF) was activated in 2008 (start-up funding by Sweden) with the goal of enabling the international community to better support local
authorities by providing rapid and flexible funding to meet unforeseen needs in the event of disasters of natural origin. From the beginning, the two planned outcomes of the Haiti/ERRF were reduced human suffering and improved coordinated response through strategic financing.


 Haiti Humanitarian Aid Evaluation : Structured Analysis Summary ReportTulane University, University of Haiti (UEH)Completed: January 2011
Published: January 2011
Evaluation reports

The goal of this evaluation is to provide programmatic recommendations to the government (and people) of Haiti and the international actors that will increase the resilience of Haitians and their communities.

  The objectives of the DRLA/UEH Humanitarian Aid Evaluation are to:

  • Evaluate the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of humanitarian interventions on human security and community resilience.
  • Develop recommendations for improving human security and resilience outcomes in catastrophic disasters.
  • Develop the capacity of Haitian academic institutions to execute and disseminate evaluations of humanitarian interventions and their effects on community resilience.
  • Disseminate findings among the international humanitarian community.


 Haiti Humanitarian Assistance Evaluation Tulane University, University of Haiti (UEH)Completed: May 2012
Published: May 2012
Evaluation reports

This report of the Haiti Humanitarian Assistance Evaluation of the 2010 earthquake that struck Haiti on January 12th was undertaken by Tulane University’s Disaster Resilience Leadership Academy in partnership with the State University of Haiti (UEH) and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

The research process was dynamic, allowing the evaluation team to explore the theme of resilience and humanitarian assistance led by and between Haitians in stakeholder workshops in impacted communities. Guided by these discussions, the evaluation team developed a resilience framework based upon 7 dimensions of resilience (wealth, debt and credit, coping behaviors, human capital, community networks, protection and security, and psychosocial) and used primary data collected through a national household and community key informant surveys, to measure the relationship between the earthquake, Haitian resilience, and exposure to humanitarian assistance and resilience outcomes. Resilience outcomes were measured at the household and individual levels.

This evaluation found that humanitarian assistance provided by the national and international community did not make a detectable contribution as defined by the 7 dimensions of resilience and in some instances, may have been associated with undesirable outcomes. Furthermore, this evaluation demonstrates the importance of engaging the impacted community from the on-set of the disaster to lead strategy, policy, and implementation based upon a thorough understanding of resilience and coping mechanisms that should be integrated into humanitarian programming starting at the beginning and continuing through the recovery process.

The framework for measuring resilience defined and used in this evaluation can serve as a catalyst for future discussions related to Haitian resilience and to support and refine the monitoring and evaluation strategy for Haiti’s recovery. However, more resources are needed to strengthen Haitian capacity to further develop evaluation methods and metrics (particularly metrics that track resources through the value chains to Haitian end user organizations and beneficiaries) that will allow for a deeper understanding of resilience and provide evidence to support data driven programming. A major constraint of the evaluation was the inability of the evaluation team to capture fully and analyze resource flows and a reluctance of many aid organizations to assist in this effort. Strengthening capacity in this regard will allow Haitian public and private institutions to more easily track, analyze, and ultimately target and manage humanitarian and recovery assistance to promote resilient outcomes.

Finally, it is important to emphasize that the findings in the Haiti Humanitarian Assistance Evaluation reflect the views and perceptions of Haitians themselves and that the recommendations provided in this evaluation, serve to guide the people of Haiti, and their government, to more effectively partner with the international community to work towards a brighter and more resilient future.

 Haiti Observatory Newsletter 2Groupe URDPublished: 2012Articles

The second edition of the Observatory Newsletter includes a number of contributions. The first article explores the question of internal migration and institutional weaknesses which exacerbated the effects of the earthquake of January 12 2010. It develops the idea that the disaster was not only natural but was also caused by the absence of planning over several decades, both in rural and urban areas.

The second article deals with the issue of rural housing reconstruction in terms of the choice between an emergency response which does not take cultural specificities into account and a more personalised response which is better adapted to rural ways of life.

The third article briefly presents the micro-zoning studies which have been launched since the earthquake.mThese aim to map risks in terms of geological factors.The fourth article focuses on the lessons from cash transfer programmes implemented after the earthquake. The urban response led to the large-scale development of cash transfer programmes and new operational methods. The article refers to several reports published in recent months on this subject. Lastly, the fifth article refers to a collective study of the medical response in the first three months after the earthquake coordinated by the Pan-American Health Organisation (PAHO).

 Haiti Progress Report 2014OxfamPublished: 12 January 2015Research, reports and studies

On 12 January 2010, a massive earthquake hit Haiti’s capital Port-au-Prince, killing 220,000 people, injuring 300,000 and severely damaging great swaths of the city. While enormous challenges remain as the country continues its recovery, Oxfam is committed to helping Haitians and their government to build a stronger, more resilient nation.

This progress report highlights Oxfam’s work in Haiti in 2014 in water, sanitation and public health; and in disaster risk reduction, economic development and reconstruction. It also summarizes the funding and spending for Oxfam’s response to the Haiti earthquake.


 Haiti REA Final Report - March 17, 2010USAIDCompleted: March 2010
Published: March 2010
Research, reports and studies

The Haiti REA; 1) Developed an improved understanding of earthquake-related environmental issues as they related to on-going and planned relief and recovery operations; 2) Provided a scoping and identification of key issues for a planned Programmatic Environmental Impact Assessment (PEA) for the facilitation of USAID recovery funding, and for other, more specific assessments of environmental impacts; and 3) Identified ways in which USAID earthquake-related assistance could contribute to an improvement in environmental conditions in Haiti.

 Haiti Shelter Sector Assessment - One Year After the EarthquakeIHC, USAIDPublished: April 2011Research, reports and studies


The International Housing Coalition’s (IHC) Haiti Shelter Sector Assessment (HSSA) reviews the progress and obstacles facing the recovery of the shelter sector after Haiti’s devastating earthquake on January 12, 2010. The HSSA is based on the prevailing shelter conditions one year after the earthquake. The principal objective of the HSSA is to provide USAID with a broad perspective on support to the shelter recovery process. Recovery from such a devastating earthquake will take many years. Therefore, the Assessment takes a medium to long-term perspective on the process. The assessment identifies critical Haitian shelter sector issues, analyzes their current context and recommends appropriate actions to be taken or facilitated by USAID through its assistance program. The following Executive Summary of the HSSA provides a brief background on Haiti, USAID’s shelter program in Haiti, as well as the five priority recommendations the IHC believes are critical to moving shelter and livelihood reconstruction forward. The Executive Summary then presents the full set of recommendations of the IHC.

 Haiti's Urban Crime Wave? Results from Monthly Household Surveys August 2011 - February 2012Igarapé InstitutePublished: March 2012Research, reports and studies

Haiti exhibited a dramatic escalation in criminal violence with Haitians reporting declining confidence in police institutions during the last six months (August 2011 to February 2012). For the first time since 2007, the incidence of violent crime and victimization has shown a consistent increase, and confidence in public institutions appears to be dropping quickly. Random household surveys conducted on a monthly basis between August 2011 and February 2012 indicate that violent crime is increasingly common, particularly over the past few months in the densely packed ‘popular’ zones of Haiti’s largest urban centers.

This assessment is based on a longitudinal survey using random sampling methods. Specifically, households in the urban areas of Port-au-Prince, Les Cayes, Cap Haitien, Gonaives, St. Marc, Jacmel and Leogane were randomly selected and surveyed about their experiences with criminality and faith in public institutions. The survey sought to measure their exposure to insecurity and opinions regarding future safety. Collectively, these surveys demonstrate an increasing dissatisfaction with the government of Haiti after five years of growing confidence as well as fears that political uncertainty and turmoil will increase crime.

 Haiti, Beneficiary Communications ReviewIFRCPublished: April 2013Programme/project reviews

For the Red Cross Red Crescent, the Haiti earthquake response was the first time a dedicated beneficiary communications delegate was deployed – and beneficiary communications activities included in the overall strategy – from the very beginning of an operation.

Embracing new technology and mass-media tools such as radio, SMS and other tele- communications technology, the Red Cross Red Crescent beneficiary communications programme in Haiti has aimed to use these to reach more people, more quickly and more effectively than ever before.

This review looks at how these tools have been deployed, how effective they have been, and suggests some next steps for furthering their impact in the future, both in Haiti and around the world.


 Haiti: A Once-in-a-Century Chance for Change: Beyond reconstruction: re-envisioning Haiti with equity, fairness, and opportunity OxfamPublished: March 2010Research, reports and studies
Haiti does not just need to be reconstructed, but in the words of Oxfam’s partners in Haiti, ‘reenvisioned’, too. Before the earthquake, 80 per cent of Haiti’s population lived on less than $2 per day. In rural areas, the figure was 90 per cent. Nearly 60 per cent of the population was undernourished, and one child in four was stunted as a result. Now nature has compounded these woes. The earthquake is the largest in proportional impact that any country has ever experienced. It could cost US$13.9bn and take 10 years to rebuild the country. Badly managed, reconstruction will deepen Haiti's suffering, benefiting the better-off more than the poor, perpetuating inequality, and creating new risks. But, if well handled, reconstruction can turn the aid industry cliché of 'build back better' into reality. Elsewhere, disasters have sometimes been the harbingers of profound social and economic change. The question is: what do Haitians need in order to recover from the earthquake in a way that can address the problems Haiti has faced for decades?
 Haiti: An Evaluation of WFP's Portfolio (2005-2010)WFPPublished: November 2011Evaluation reports

To assess and report on the performance and results of the country portfolio in line with the WFP mandate and in response to humanitarian and development challenges in Haiti (accountability);
to determine the reasons for observed success/failure and draw lessons from experience to produce evidence-based findings to allow the CO to make informed strategic decisions about positioning itself in Haiti, form strategic partnerships, and improve operations design and implementation whenever possible (learning).

 Haiti: First mobile phone cash transfers facilitate UN-backed home rebuildingPublished: 1 March 2012Blogs


Survivors of the 2010 devastating earthquake in Haiti have this week started receiving cash subsidies through the first-ever mobile money transfer system in support of post-disaster housing reconstruction, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) reported today.

 Haiti: from Relief to Development Global Communities Published: 2010Factsheets and summaries

Less than 500 miles from the coast of the United States lies the poorest country in the Western hemisphere. Marked by decades of political instability, poverty and humanitarian disasters, Haiti presents one of the world’s most complex development challenges. In spite of this difficult environment, the momentum to capture the Haitian people’s spirit of the enterprise and incredible potential has been building within Haiti and the international community.
Since 2006 CHF has been undertaking the largest USAID- funded jobs and infrastructure creation program in Haiti. With about 180 staff in the field, we are uniquely positioned to assist in the country’s reconstruction efforts. When the earthquake that killed more than 230,000 people hit, we were already on the ground to provide immediate assistance and relief.


 Haiti:The slow road to reconstruction. Two years after the earthquakeOxfamPublished: 10 January 2012Factsheets and summaries
In the two years since the devastating earthquake, Haiti’s government has still not implemented comprehensive plans to address the key issues of shelter; sustainable access to water, sanitation, and hygiene; and secure livelihoods. Donors have failed to meet UN humanitarian appeals and have delivered less than half of promised reconstruction funds. The international community must renew efforts to bolster the government’s capacity to effectively coordinate reconstruction, while consulting and engaging with Haitian citizens in the process.
 HAP deployment to Haiti – final reportHAP-IPublished: September 2010Programme/project reviews

As a result of the 12th January 2010 earthquake 2.3 million people were displaced resulting in over 1300 camps, with 1.6 million residents. The camps vary in terms of size (from a few tents to up to 50,000 people); how they were formed (while some were planned the majority formed spontaneously after the earthquake); and level of support and management from NGOs and agencies. For the humanitarian response, a focus on, and sufficient level of, accountability is necessary to meet people’s needs, and reduces the possibility of errors, abuse and corruption. Such a focus results in more effective and better quality programmes, and enables organisations themselves to perform better. For the purpose of improving accountability at the operational level and to highlight it on the humanitarian agenda in Haiti, a HAP deployment was conducted from March to September. This deployment was established as a part of an overall quality and accountability presence that incorporated the expertise of both HAP and The Sphere Project, and was hosted by the joint initiative of RedR Uk and Bioforce, DRSS. The team worked to seek improvement in how the international community shared information and involved the disaster-affected communities in the response, and
supported the establishment of well-functioning complaint mechanisms to hold agencies and individuals accountable for their actions. Achievements of the six-month deployment included the design and implementation of impact-oriented training for national and international agencies, the development of a widely applicable tool to assess the role of camp committees, initiation of a joint complaints mechanism, and establishment of a forum to exchange knowledge and joint initiatives. The team worked closely with HAP members, non-affiliated agencies, the UN, national NGOs and national and international media. Though this phase of HAP presence in-country has ended, the material developed and analyses conducted are continuing to influencing the humanitarian response in both Haiti and beyond.

 Homeowner-Driven Housing Reconstruction and Retrofitting in HaitiBuild ChangePublished: 9 January 2014Research, reports and studies

This paper presents a summary of lessons learned to date in building and retrofitting housing in Haiti following the January 12, 2010 earthquake, with the intent of influencing the implementation of future post-disaster housing reconstruction programs in Haiti and elsewhere. It describes steps for project implementation and contains a summary of the Build Change retrofit evaluation, design, and implementation procedure, using locally hired and trained staff.

 Host Community Guidelines CARE International, IASCPublished: June 2010Tools, guidelines and methodologies

This paper serves as a living document which considers the experiences of host community assessments, needs and interventions in both Haiti and elsewhere to develop multi-sectoral guidelines for organisations and agencies in Haiti to support both directly and indirectly earthquake affected areas in Haiti.

It should be considered a first step in formulating guidelines for hosting support in Haiti and to be used in future emergencies. Next steps will be determined by the Host Family Working Group and involve updating information, analysing lessons learned, and applying them in this guideline format to be distributed at an inter-cluster level.


 Humanitarian Aid on the Move: Special Issue - HaitiGroupe URDPublished: February 2011Articles

On 12 January 2010 at 4.50 pm local time (the middle of the night in Europe), the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault awoke. The earth began to shake, thick white dust rose above Port-au-Prince while a terrifying noise echoed out. Complete silence followed only to be broken by the screaming and crying of hundreds of thousands of Haitians.

When the news reached us at Groupe URD we were in the process of sending the six
country reports of the Cluster II evaluation. We had written the Haiti country report
for this evaluation in late 2009. In the end, we could not send it - no one was left on the
Haitian side to receive it. Since then, we have been constantly mobilized. On 13 January
we posted advice for actors and our assessment of the context on our site. Since then,
we have been to Haiti to conduct eight evaluation and organizational support processes
and several research projects. We have tried to share lessons at every opportunity via
numerous articles and participation in conferences.

A great deal is at stake: since 2003 and the Bam earthquake in Iran, no year has passed without a major disaster (tsunami, earthquake, flood, cyclone, etc.) erasing fragile advances in development and calling into question certain paradigms of humanitarian action. There are no two ways about it: we need to learn quicker, improve institutions, revise work methods and do all we can to avoid repeating the mistakes that have been made in Haiti. We owe as much to the dead and to the living.

 Humanitarian Crises, Emergency Preparedness and Response: the Role of Business and the Private Sector - A Strategy and Options Analysis of HaitiPublished: January 2014Research, reports and studies

This paper analyses the role of the private sector in humanitarian action in Haiti, with a particular focus on the response to the devastating earthquake that struck Port-au-Prince in 2010. During the response, international and Haitian businesses participated
in humanitarian efforts – both directly assisting populations and working with aid agencies – for commercial and philanthropic reasons. Numerous businesses provided goods, services and technical assistance to aid agencies through commercial and pro-bono arrangements and collaborated with humanitarian organisations on the design and implementation of interventions. Much of this private sector engagement revolved around cash transfer programming and mobile communication. Aid agencies, financial institutions and mobile network operators worked together to provide cash and vouchers, and text messaging was used to channel information from humanitarian agencies to people affected by disaster, as well as to solicit information from them on their needs


 Humanitarian Exchange 48: The Haiti Earthquake ResponseODIPublished: October 2010Articles

The Haiti earthquake response
2 Learning the lessons of Haiti
4 Surveying Haiti’s post-quake needs: a quantitative approach
7 Coordination and the tenure puzzle in Haiti 10 Mobile field hospitals in the Haiti earthquake response
13 The United Nations Humanitarian Civil–Military Coordination (UN–CMCoord) response to the Haiti earthquake
15 Smart and just: involving children and young people in post disaster needs assessment 18 The work of the Education Cluster in Haiti 20 Water, sanitation and public health in post-
earthquake Haiti: reflections on Oxfam’s experience
23 The Haiti earthquake: breaking new ground in the humanitarian information landscape
25 Emergency food assistance in Haiti: lessons learnt from a post-earthquake GTZ operation in Leogane
27 Building back a better Haiti

Practice and policy notes
29 Productivity and cash-for-work in Niger: GOAL’s experience
31 Peacekeeping and the protection of civilians: an issue for humanitarians?
34 A role for Civil Affairs in community conflict resolution? MINURCAT’s Intercommunity Dialogue Strategy in eastern Chad
36 Addressing the challenge of compliance: Tearfund’s Quality Standards
39 Guidelines for working with community volunteers and committees in humanitarian emergencies
42 Acts of God(s): the role of religion in Disaster Risk Reduction
45 NGO engagement with the Consolidated Appeal Process in Zimbabwe: is it worth the effort

 Humanitarian Exchange 51: Humanitarian Action in the Middle EastODIPublished: July 2011Articles
 Humanitarian action in the Middle East
2 The humanitarian challenge in the Middle East
4 Restricting aid: access and movement constraints in the occupied Palestinian territory
7 Supporting women in a difficult policy environment: the ICRC’s programmes for women-headed households in Iraq
9 Iraqi refugees: making the urban approach context-specific
12 Working with local organisations in Jordan
14 Addressing mental health needs in Lebanon
17 MSF in the Middle East: a challenging context

Practice and policy notes
19 What cash transfers tell us about the international humanitarian community
21 Local NGOs in Myanmar: vibrant but vulnerable
23 Christian faith communities and HIV in humanitarian settings: the cases of South Sudan, DRC and Kenya
26 Developing interagency DRR tools at field level: World Vision’s experience in Bolivia
29 A market-integrated response to an emergency in Kyrgyzstan
32 Ending isolation: solar solutions in Haiti
33 Integrating conflict mitigation into the INEE Minimum Standards for Education


 Humanitarian Exchange 52: Special feature - Humanitarian AccountabilityODIPublished: October 2011Articles

This edition, co-edited with ALNAP’s John Mitchell and Paul Knox-Clarke, is dedicated to accountability in humanitarian action. In their overview article our co- editors reflect on the underlying rationales – both moral and practical – we use to justify our commitments to improving accountability, and whether our understanding of accountability has changed in the decade since the ‘accountability revolution’ last featured in Humanitarian Exchange. 

Humanitarian accountability
3 Reflections on the accountability revolution
5 United we stand? Collective accountability in the humanitarian sector
8 Only as strong as our weakest link: can the humanitarian system be collectively
accountable to affected populations?
10 Real Time Evaluations: contributing to system-wide learning and accountability
13 NGO certification: time to bite the bullet? 15 Accountability – don’t forget your staff
18 Humanitarian leadership and accountability: contribution or contradiction?
22 The role of donors in enhancing quality and accountability in humanitarian aid
24 Accountability: the DEC’s experience
27 A framework for strengthening partnering accountability and effectiveness
31 Community feedback and complaints mechanisms: early lessons from Tearfund’s
34 Sexual exploitation and abuse by UN, NGO and INGO personnel: a self-assessment
36 Corruption in the NGO world: what it is and how to tackle it
39 Delivering communications in an emergency response: observations from Haiti
42 Local perspectives of the Haiti earthquake response
44 NGO accountability: findings from South Sudan

 Humanitarian Exchange 54: Special Feature - New learning in cash transfer programmingODIPublished: May 2012Articles

New learning in cash transfer programming
3 Bigger, better, faster: achieving scale in emergency cash transfer programmes
5 ‘More than just another tool’: a report on the Copenhagen Cash and Risk Conference
8 Cash transfers and response analysis in humanitarian crises
10 A deadly delay: risk aversion and cash in the 2011 Somalia famine
13 Institutionalising cash transfer programming  
15 New technologies in cash transfer
programming and humanitarian assistance
18 Innovation in emergencies: the launch of ‘mobile money’ in Haiti
21 Lessons learnt on unconditional cash transfers in Haiti
24 Fresh food vouchers: findings of a meta-evaluation of five fresh food voucher programmes

Practice and policy notes
28 Bridging the gap between policy and practice: the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid and Humanitarian Principles
30 Humanitarian financing and older people
33 The rehabilitation response in Haiti: a systems evaluation approach
35 Working with Somali diaspora organisations in the UK
37 Applying conflict-sensitive methodologies in rapid-onset emergencies


 IASC Cluster Approach Evaluation, Country Study - HaitiIASCCompleted: April 2010
Published: April 2010
Evaluation reports

Objectives: The evaluation assesses the operational effectiveness and the main outcomes of the cluster approach, as well as its interactions with other pillars of humanitarian reform. It
offers recommendations for different stakeholders to better achieve the intended goals of the cluster approach. As the primary objective of the evaluation is to encourage learning, it aims to identify factors that hinder or support the cluster approach in achieving these goals.

 IASC evaluation de l'approche cluster, etude pays - HaïtiIASCCompleted: April 2010
Published: 1 April 2010
Evaluation reports

Objectives: L’évaluation analyse l’efficacité opérationnelle et les principaux résultats de l’approche Cluster aussi bien que ses interactions avec les autres piliers de la réforme humanitaire. Le rapport propose des recommandations aux différentes parties prenantes pour qu’elles atteignent mieux les objectifs escomptés de l’approche Cluster. Comme le
premier objectif de cette évaluation est d’encourager l’apprentissage, ce document vise à identifier les facteurs qui gênent ou soutiennent l’approche Cluster dans l’atteinte de ces objectifs.

 Implementation, Sustainability and Impact of Club 25 in the Americas IFRCCompleted: May 2010
Published: July 2013
Evaluation reports

This document provides the results of the evaluation which included 15 out of 21 National Societies participating in the Club 25 initiative supported by the Finnish Red Cross and the Federation Secretariat in the Americas since 2007. The structure of the evaluation was based on five principal elements: Quality, Effectiveness, Coverage, Limitations and Sustainability of the Club 25 initiative in the Americas. The evaluation was designed to be applied as follows: Survey of all Club 25 national leaders attending a Club 25 continental meeting held in Panama, in December 2009. Based on meeting attendance the survey data does not include information from Brazil, Cuba, Guyana, Haiti, Dominican Republic and Suriname. All National Societies implementing Club 25 in 2009 were invited to participate in the meeting.

 Independent Evaluation of the Ushahidi Haiti ProjectUshahidiPublished: April 2011Evaluation reports

Ushahidi Haiti Project is interested in assessing the effectiveness of the mobilization of the Ushahidi technology platform following the recent earthquake in Haiti, in particular during the initial disaster response phase. The deployment was based out of and managed by students from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, a graduate school of international affairs based at Tufts University. The evaluation will look at how widely the Ushahidi Haiti platform was used by different organisations, how effectively it was implemented, and how it was communicated to people on the ground. Furthermore, the evaluation will address the appropriateness of Ushahidi Haiti Project’s work; does this form of deployment addresses the real needs of the situation and add value to the response? The evaluation will take place in Boston and Haiti.

The time period being evaluated is January 12 through January 26, the immediate emergency response period. Evaluation Goal: To understand the effect that the Ushahidi Haiti deployment had in the humanitarian crisis response effort in Haiti from January 12 to January 26, 2010 in order to inform future actors that may consider utilizing the crisis mapping platform. Evaluation objectives: This evaluation will have three objectives: 1) effectiveness, 2) efficiency, and 3) relevance. These objectives are defined in the OECD DAC evaluation terminology.

 Independent Joint Evaluation of Humanitarian Response in Haiti CARE International, Save the ChildrenPublished: October 2010Evaluation reports

Objectives: The purpose of this joint evaluation is to provide to participating organizations a measure of the effect of their post earthquake’s emergency intervention in Haiti within the first 7 months and to draw clear recommendations for longer term programming for the coming 5 years.

Specific Objectives
a) To provide an assessment of the relevance and timeliness of the humanitarian response to the earthquake so far using the DAC criteria of:

  • Relevance /appropriateness
  • Connectedness
  • Coherence
  • Coverage

b) To draw out key lessons to inform agencies recovery plans, with consideration given to implementation according to benchmarks and targets in each agency’s accountability framework

  • Commitment to agreed humanitarian principles, standards and behaviours in addition to performance in each organization core sectors and in cross-cutting issues (protection, gender equality, local context, participation of primary stakeholders).
  • How far have agencies built on local capacity?
  • Accountability to beneficiaries: to what extent the affected population has been involved in all stages

c) To determine to what extent agencies are building on lessons learnt from similar humanitarian responses, specifically previous earthquake responses.

d) To determine to what extent synergies, cooperation and integration have occurred.

e) What are the negative impacts of the early response, especially for the longer term (such as increased concentration of power, authority and economic resources or focusing on sites instead of communities). Is the “do no harm” approach applied?

f) Advocacy: to what extent the organizations used their network to promote key priorities of the affected population at the highest level.

g) To highlight any unmet needs or unnecessary overlap that should be addressed further during the response.

 Independent Review of the U.S. Government Response to the Haiti EarthquakeUSAIDCompleted: March 2012
Published: March 2012
Programme/project reviews

The aim of this review was to examine three broad areas of action primarily related to relief and recovery assistance to the Haitian Government and people: (1) internal U.S. Government
coordination; (2) partner coordination; and (3) response effectiveness. The timeframe of the report is from the date of the event, 12 January, through 30 June 2010. All data collected and analyzed correspond to this timeframe. The report draws on more than one hundred and fifty interviews and several hundred documents to identify lessons learned in the first six months of the response. Many of these lessons are shortcomings and need changes in the system, but many are successes. If the report focuses on the shortcomings, it is to learn from mistakes and make the management of catastrophes a little easier in the future than it was this time around.

 Independent review of UNICEF's operational response to the January 2010 earthquake in HaitiUNICEFCompleted: September 2011
Published: September 2011
Programme/project reviews

This review was conducted from November 2010 to February 2011. While following an evaluative approach, it did not constitute a full-scale evaluation aimed at exhaustively documenting the results UNICEF achieved or did not achieve for children and women in Haiti or the many factors that have affected its response since this extraordinary disaster. Rather, it focused more narrowly on identifying key internal systemic factors that helped or hindered UNICEF’s response in the first three months after the earthquake. Its recommendations thus concentrate on the operational performance of UNICEF’s internal system for emergency response. Overall, the review team found UNICEF’s early response to be marked by rapid reaction in the earthquake’s immediate aftermath, followed by inconsistent performance soon thereafter. UNICEF-led clusters were activated immediately – but, with the exception of the water, sanitation, and hygiene cluster, their leadership remained weak and unclear.

 INSARAG Haiti Earthquake After Action Review MeetingInternational Search and Rescue Advisory GroupPublished: June 2010After action & learning reviews


The INSARAG Haiti Earthquake After Action Review Meeting was held in Geneva,
Switzerland on 02-03 June 2010 with more than 110 participants from 36 countries and 12
organizations. The meeting was hosted by the Government of Switzerland and co-organized
by OCHA’s Field Coordination Support Section, in its capacity as the INSARAG Secretariat.
The meeting was chaired by Ambassador Toni Frisch, Chairman of INSARAG. Keynote
presentations were given by Ms. Marie Alta Jean-Baptiste, Director of Civil Protection,
Government of Haiti, Mr. Rudolf Müller, Chief, Emergency Services Branch, OCHA Geneva,
Mr. Rene Carrillo, USAID-ODFA Regional Advisor on behalf of the Chairman of the
INSARAG Americas Regional Group, and Mr. Jesper Lund, Officer-in-Charge of the Field
Coordination Support Section of OCHA Geneva. The list of participants (Annex G) and the
agenda of the meeting are attached (Annex F).

 INSARAG Haiti Earthquake ResponseInternational Search and Rescue Advisory Group, UN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies


As the humanitarian coordination body of the United Nations, the
mandate of Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs is to
ensure efficient and coordinated response to emergencies. This mandate
requires coordination amongst all the humanitarian actors, especially at
the very first phase of an emergency. As one of OCHA’s primary partners
in the critical life-saving phase of emergency response, the International
Search and Rescue Advisory Group was once again at the forefront of the
international rescue and relief operations following the devastating earthquake
which struck Haiti on 12 January 2010. OCHA - as the provider
of the INSARAG Secretariat and custodian of many of the international
community’s first response tools, such as the Global Disaster Alert and
Coordination System (GDACS), the Virtual On-Site Operations Coordination
Centre and the United Nations Disaster Assessment & Coordination
(UNDAC) team - worked around the clock to facilitate information sharing
amongst all responders. OCHA immediately deployed a team of UNDAC
members – many travelling to the disaster site with international urban
search and rescue (USAR) teams - to support operational coordination of
USAR teams on the ground throughout the rescue phase and to jumpstart
OCHA’s humanitarian coordination activities of the international humanitarian
The INSARAG network grew out of lessons learned from earthquake
response. The 1988 Armenia Earthquake was the trigger for its creation.
International urban search and rescue teams rushed to assist the country
in its rescue efforts, but there was no communication, no system of
coordination. Teams worked wherever they found a need, rather than
be directed to where there were priority requirements for the kinds of
technical expertise and equipment they possessed. Recognising that this
was not an effective way to respond, INSARAG was created in 1991, to
set up a system of operational coordination, to foster minimum standards,
to work to common methodology and guidelines. The work of
INSARAG and its methodology was endorsed by the United Nations General
Assembly Resolution 57/150 of 2002 on “Strengthening the Effectiveness
and Coordination of International Urban Search and Rescue Assistance”.
First on the ground, USAR teams work hand-in-hand with local response
teams, bringing additional expertise and technology to assist where
needed, where local resources may be lacking. In addition to search and
rescue support, INSARAG USAR teams provide medical support and are
often providers of the first assessments, the first information to come
out of a disaster site, the first indication of needs and priorities.
This information is shared with the international community, through
the Virtual OSOCC and on the ground, to assist planning and targeting
of international humanitarian relief efforts.
When the rescue phase draws to a close, INSARAG teams move to
recovery activities, helping extract bodies for burial – so important to
families and loved ones – rubble removal, structural evaluations, always in
support of local teams, always in coordination with other response efforts.
INSARAG has always collectively evaluated its response, recognising the
importance of sharing experience to bring improvements to the INSARAG
Guidelines and methodology. Thus, the Haiti Earthquake After-Action
Review Meeting took place in Switzerland on 02-03 June 2010, hosted by
the Swiss Government. This publication is an example of how INSARAG
methodology is taken forward as a living process, summarizing the many
recommendations to come out of the USAR community’s experiences in
Haiti with the aim of enhancing the quality of collapsed structure disaster

 Insécurité et aide humanitaire en Haïti : l’impossible dialogue ?Groupe URDPublished: September 2013Research, reports and studies

La sécurité en Haïti compte parmi les sujets de controverses et de divergences les plus importants au sein et entre les organisations internationales. En effet, les perceptions de l’insécurité varient diamétralement d’un acteur à l’autre, et notamment entre les organisations humanitaires et les ONG de développement. L’étude présentée dans ce rapport apporte un éclairage nouveau sur les fondements des regards portés sur la violence et la criminalité dans l’Aire métropolitaine de Port-au-Prince, ainsi que sur le bien-fondé des mesures sécuritaires mises en place en réponse au problème de l’insécurité ou du sentiment d’insécurité.

Cette étude a pour ambition de fournir aux organisations humanitaires soucieuses de revoir leur approche de la sécurité en Haïti des éléments susceptibles de les aider dans cette démarche. Pour cela, il est nécessaire
d’élargir et d’approfondir le débat sur la sécurité des humanitaires au-delà des
approches technocratiques de « gestion du risque » qui dépolitisent le phénomène de l’insécurité et du sentiment d’insécurité.

 Inter-agency Real-time Evaluation (IA RTE) of the Humanitarian Response to the Haiti Earthquake IASCCompleted: April 2010
Published: April 2010
Evaluation reports

The IA RTE will be multi-phased and provide snapshots of current situations, including real-time feedback and learning to the UN Country Team (UNCT) and to the IASC locally. The main objective of the IA RTE is to assess the response at multiple phases to inform management decision making in the field, and enable both field and headquarters staff to undertake corrective actions in real time as the response evolves. Actions taken during the first weeks and months after a disaster have a major impact on the recovery process that follows. Accordingly, the first IA RTE team will be deployed during the initial phase. A subsequent mission will allow for reflection on uptake of lessons learned and further reflect upon the direction of the response. The results of the IA RTE in Haiti are envisaged to support the ongoing operational planning of the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT), which will be the most immediate user of the IA RTE process and its recommendations. In the transition to recovery phase of the IA RTE, primary users include those involved in the post-disaster needs assessment (PDNA) and recovery framework (RF) development processes, senior management and support functions within agencies involved in the response, donors, and others.

 Inter-agency real-time Evaluation in Haiti: 3 months after the earthquakeGroupe URDPublished: 31 August 2010Evaluation reports


The Inter-Agency Standing Committee held a real-time evaluation (RTE) of the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake that included three phases, the first of which was implemented between April and May 2010. The three-week country mission included workshops with key stakeholders, in-depth data analysis, and debriefings in Port-au-Prince. The process of gathering information and recording local people’s perceptions was carried out as rigorously as possible on the basis of a typology of different sites and zones via semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus groups. The fieldwork was followed by a series of debriefings and additional data collection exercises in New York, Geneva, and London.


 Inter-agency real-time evaluation of the humanitarian response to the earthquake in Haiti: 20 months afterIASC, UN OCHA - Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsCompleted: January 2011
Published: January 2011
Evaluation reports

This report summarises the second phase of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s Inter-Agency Real-Time Evaluation of the response to the Earthquake, twenty months after the disaster event. The earthquake that struck Haiti on January 12th 2010 had a drastic effect on the country’s human and institutional public and the private sector capacity. An estimated 230,000 people lost their lives; 300,000 more were injured and over 1 million were left homeless. The devastating humanitarian situation was compounded by Haiti’s underlying vulnerabilities and high level of chronic poverty. In response, the international community mounted a massive humanitarian relief effort and fifty-five donors pledged a total of $4.59 billion in grants for 2010 and 2011 towards the rebuilding of the country.

Given the scale of the disaster and subsequent hum anitarian response, the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) launched a multiphase exercise to inform decision makers at national and headquarters levels, to draw lessons and allow corrections to be made where necessary. The Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) is intended to be the most immediate user of the feedback and recommendations of the evaluation.

The first phase of the Inter-Agency Real-Time Evaluation, completed in May 2010, covered the initial response. The second phase was initially foreseen to take place in October 20103 and focus in a forward-looking manner on inter-agency coordination problems or operational challenges during the transition phase. The process was postponed, due to the October 2010 cholera outbreak and the delays in starting the transition phase.

This second phase sought to:

  • Analyze and provide lessons for the ongoing response, with a particular focus on coordination between different actors involved;
  • Examine options for linking humanitarian response structures with longer-term and/or governmentestablished mechanisms; and
  • Analyse the extent to which the findings and recommendations from the first phase of the Inter-Agency Real-Time Evaluation have informed the evolving humanitarian response in Haiti.

The evaluation found that the key achievements of the response have been: mainstreaming of disaster preparedness; an effective response in camps, with populations largely free of cholera; recent progress on the rate of rubble removal; implementation of integrated neighbourhood-based approaches; and progress in improving water and sanitation in the longer term. The main shortcomings include: durable solutions; livelihoods; accommodation; communication; and provision of continued support to address remaining needs. The evaluation has also identified many areas where data collection, needs analysis, consultation and communication, inter-agency action, and action with government need to be strengthened so that gains made are not lost as agencies phase out. The response in Haiti has been more expensive than in other recent emergencies (e.g., Pakistan, Sri Lanka) and has far exceeded initial estimates, with projects reported as exceeding projected costs by 2.5 to 3 times. Transition is on the agenda but needs a vision, a strategy, a plan, and leadership. There is a need for defining and understanding new roles and clarifying responsibilities in the move towards transition and development. Note that the data one cover page of the report is incorrectly given as January 2011 rather than January 2012, although the final file data is March 2012.

 Internal Population Displacement in HaitiPublished: May 2010Research, reports and studies
 International Network of Crisis Mappers (CM*Net) Growth, Communications and ResponsePublished: March 2010Research, reports and studies

Summary and links for Crisis Mapping Haiti

 IOM Cash-Based Transfer: Update and Case Studies November 2015IOM - International Organization for MigrationPublished: 15 June 2016Research, reports and studies

Cash-based transfers have a long history in the support of people on the move. Cash or vouchers have been an element of the International Organization for Migration’s resettlement support for people moving to new countries, or returning to countries they had to leave. Increasingly over the last decade, IOM has applied and refined the lessons learned to deliver cash quickly and at scale in humanitarian emergencies, including protracted crises; and continued programming involving cash-based transfer in early recovery and reparations.

This series of case studies demonstrate the range and breadth of IOM’s cash programming. The objective is to demonstrate lessons to be learned, with the recognition that all projects should take into consideration the local context and needs of the affected population, which will differ in every case.


 It's Good to Talk, but Better to ListenFetzer Institute, IOM - International Organization for MigrationPublished: January 2013Programme/project reviews

Under a blazing Caribbean sun, Sandra Félicien stood in front of a crowd of impoverished people, who like herself, have been homeless since the earthquake of 12 January 2010. After spending months living in tents or makeshift shelters, their patience was at breaking point.

We called it the Tanbou Project after the Creole word for the Haitian drums whose beat can be heard day and night across Port au Prince. There are now over 140 such Information booths scattered amongst the 1,300 camps where over 1.5 million homeless people had been living since the quake. The booths are a spinoff of a program funded last year by the USAID Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI) to encourage two-way communication with the displaced.


 KATYE: Bienvenue a Ravine PintadeGlobal Communities , USAIDPublished: May 2012Presentations





 Knowledge Matters - Lessons from the city: experiences in addressing urban povertyConcernPublished: June 2015Articles

This edition of Knowledge Matters is dedicated to exploring the various experiences that Concern’s country programmes have had in addressing urban poverty. Each of the country experiences presents a unique approach to addressing poverty in the city. It can and has been argued that urban poverty has fundamental different characteristics to rural poverty. From reading the various articles what is clear is that the distinction between rural and urban, as experienced by individuals, is not a “divide” but a continuum defined by a series of characteristics.

Concern(ing) urban programming 4
The role of urban community health workers in improving health outcomes 7
Developing indicators for an urban early warning system 10
Boosting development in Grand Ravine: a community engagement model for working in
Haiti’s complex urban settings 14
Helping pavement dwellers out of extreme poverty in Bangladesh 17
Inspiring new solutions to displacement: experiences from the Return to Neighbourhoods Programme 22
Overcoming sampling obstacles for health data in urban slums 26
Promoting marketable skills for the informal sector in Addis Ababa 30
Providing a safe refuge for working children in an urban setting 34
Teaching equity: public teacher distribution in the city of Nairobi 37
Urban sanitation facilities in Liberia: rethinking latrine designs 41
The future is urban: what have we learned? what lies ahead? 45
French-language abstracts 49

 La connaissance des quartiers informels et de leurs dynamiques au cœur de notre interventionPublished: July 2013Lessons papers

En Haïti, SOLIDARITÉS INTERNATIONAL est à la fois un témoin et un acteur privilégié des changements urbains de la zone métropolitaine. Notre ONG a progressivement élaboré une stratégie combinant des interventions d’urgence pour faire face aux besoins les plus immédiats des habitants, et des projets de reconstruction pour permettre un développement durable de la ville.


Ce rapport a pour objectif d'analyser quelques spécificités du contexte urbain de Port-au-Prince ainsi que certains des grands enjeux de la reconstruction qui s'amorce en Haïti, presque deux ans après le tremblement de terre du 12 janvier 2010.

 La Reconstruction de Port-au-Prince: analyses et ré flexions sur les stratégies d'interventions en milieu urbainSolidarites InternationalStarted: September 2011
Completed: October 2011
Published: October 2011
Research, reports and studies

Ce rapport a pour objectif d’analyser quelques spécificités du contexte urbain de Port-au-Prince ainsi que certains des grands enjeux de la reconstruction qui s’amorce en Haïti, presque deux ans après le tremblement de terre du 12 janvier 2010, afin de permettre à Solidarités International de mieux définir les cadres de son action en contexte urbain.

 La reconstruction du Port-au-PrinceSolidarites InternationalPublished: 2011After action & learning reviews

Ce rapport a pour objectif d’analyser quelques spécificités du contexte urbain de Port-au- Prince ainsi que certains des grands enjeux de la reconstruction qui s’amorce en Haïti, presque deux ans après le tremblement de terre du 12 janvier 2010, afin de permettre à Solidarités International de mieux défnir les cadres de son action en contexte urbain.

 Land Rights, Land Tenure, and Urban Recovery - Rebuilding post-earthquake Port-au-Prince and LéogâneOxfamPublished: 2012Research, reports and studies

Two years after the earthquake in Haiti, nearly 500,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) remain in tents and informal settlements in the earthquake zone. The reasons for this vary, but land rights and land tenure are central. A series of forced evictions in 2011 brought attention to the issue.

Two years after the earthquake in Haiti, nearly 500,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) remain in tents and informal settlements in the earthquake zone. The reasons for this vary, but land rights and land tenure are central. A series of forced evictions in 2011 brought attention to the issue.

Recommendations for advancing the issue include supporting the Haitian government by increasing capacity in the land tenure system, and the modernization of the cadastral map and titling system. Land rights are only one edge of the tenure issue. Given the nature of the Haitian economy and the number of IDPs who were renters prior to the earthquake event, some consideration must also be given to improving tenancy rights as well.


 Learning from the Urban Transitional Shelter Response in HaitiCRSPublished: 2012Lessons papers

This handbook documents Catholic Relief Service’s experience in planning
and implementing its urban transitional shelter response in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
The following pages highlight challenges, successes and key aspects that could
be useful in future responses to urban disasters. This publication is a result of
site visits, studies of internal and external documentation and interviews with
beneficiaries and community members during the 2010–2012 post-earthquake
period. CRS is currently planning for permanent reconstruction programs in
Haiti and is scheduled to pilot such a program in May 2012.

 Leçons tirées des interventions urbaines de rétablissement des moyens d’existence par la Croix-Rouge britannique à Port-au-Prince (Haïti) British Red Cross SocietyPublished: September 2014Lessons papers

Suite au séisme du 12 janvier 2010, la Croix-Rouge britannique (CRB) a lancé à Port-au-Prince un programme de rétablissement intégré comprenant des activités dites de « moyens d’existence », d’abris et d’eau/assainissement/hygiène. Cet article se concentre sur les leçons apprises de la mise en œuvre de la composante « moyens d’existence ». Il est extrait d’une étude plus vaste réalisée sur ce même sujet, axée sur les questions relatives au diagnostic initial, à la prise de décision et à la gestion. Celle-ci aboutit à six points clés d’apprentissage pour les membres et partenaires de la CRB, mais aussi d’autres organisations humanitaires et de développement

 Les causes de la crise de la transition démographique en Haïti : une analyse néo-institutionnellePublished: 2010Articles

La société haïtienne se trouve actuellement dans la phase critique de sa crise
chronique de développement. Elle est fortement prise dans une trappe de sous-développement.
N’était-ce la contribution financière des émigrants haïtiens et des organisations non
gouvernementales, elle se serait déjà effondrée. Cette situation découle en grande partie du
décalage démo-économique qui s’est creusé au fil du temps. Quant à ce décalage, il est lié, dans un premier temps, à l’enclenchement tardif de la transition démographique, et, dans un second temps, à la stagnation de celle-ci. Ces deux phénomènes s’expliquent eux-mêmes par des facteurs institutionnels à la fois civils (structuration familiale et mode de production) et
politiques (absence de politiques publiques d’éducation et de population). Cet article, suivant
une approche institutionnelle prenant en compte les processus sociaux parallèles, vise à
procéder à l’intelligibilité des interactions dysfonctionnelles entre les institutions de base de la
société haïtienne, et ce afin de déterminer leur impact sur le processus de transition
démographique et par surcroit sur la dynamique de sous-développement de ce pays.

 Lessons learned & best practices: The international federation of red cross and red crescent societies shelter programme in Haiti 2010-2012IFRCPublished: 2010Lessons papers

Due to the scale and complexity of the shelter programme, especially in the recovery phase, the IFRC decided to conduct a review of best practices and lessons learned from the past two years of shelter programming in Haiti that could inform its membership and secretariat for any new major catastrophe in Haiti as well as inform shelter operations world-wide. The best practice and lessons learned review was also an opportunity to learn about membership services and Movement cooperation. During March and April 2012 two consultants were engaged to discuss with PNSs, the HNRCS and the IFRC secretariat their own views of best practice and lessons learned, both at the field and headquarters level as well as conduct field visits to meet with national society staff and make technical observations of the different types of shelter solutions.

 Management Response to the Recommendations of the Summary Evaluation Report - Haiti Country PortfolioWFPPublished: 17 November 2011Evaluation reports

This document presents the management response to the recommendations of the Country Portfolio Evaluation of WFP’s Assistance to Haiti (2005–2010). The operating environment in Haiti during the evaluation period was volatile and complex: WFP had to overcome numerous challenges and adapt programmes significantly, particularly after the earthquake in January 2010. This was achieved with support from Headquarters and the regional bureau through an approach focusing on recovery and development, with the flexibility to respond to emergencies. The positioning of the existing programme and WFP’s relationship with the Government e
nabled the major scaling up of assistance after the earthquake.

 Mandat de suivi externe des projets de reconstruction et réhabilitation (4 missions entre septembre 2010 et juin 2012)Swiss SolidarityStarted: June 2010
Published: September 2010
Evaluation reports

Objectives: Une brève analyse de l'évolution du contexte doit permettre d'informer SwS sur les facteurs potentiellement les plus influents sur le déroulement des projets.
Une analyse transversale des projets fait le suivi et l’appréciation des processus de gestion mis en place dans ces projets pour atteindre leurs résultats. Elle permet de faire ressortir les forces et faiblesses des différentes approches, les difficultés communes et les solutions à reproduire afin de créer des synergies et favoriser l'apprentissage découlant de la mise en commun des expériences.
Une analyse par projet permet de cibler les forces et faiblesses d'un projet et d'assurer un meilleur suivi de la mise en oeuvre afin d'émettre des recommandations précises.

 Media, Information Systems and Communities: Lessons from HaitiCDAC-N, InternewsCompleted: January 2011
Published: January 2011
Conference, training & meeting documents

This report captures three important observations:

1. Traditional humanitarian organizations were often open to the new technologies, but remain nervous about the implications of information and powersharing through crowdsourcing and other new media platforms.

2. Joint humanitarian communities demonstrated that there were many beneficial ways to use digital media in the crisis setting, particularly texting functions.

3. Although much of the attention has been paid to new media technologies, radio was the most effective tool for serving the needs of the public. The first media priority in Haiti was to restore radio service (as it was in the tsunami and other recent crises).

 Meeting Humanitarian Challenges in Urban Areas: Review of Urban Humanitarian Challenges in Port-au-prince, Manila, Nairobi, EldoretUN HabitatPublished: 2011Research, reports and studies

The objectives of this evaluation of urban case studies are to:

a. review, the tools, practices capacities and methodologies employed by
humanitarian agencies in responding to humanitarian crises and emergencies;

b. develop a robust evidence base to support the strategy formulated for
meeting humanitarian challenges;

c. enhance IASC’s understanding of challenges and gaps encountered in
the humanitarian response.

 Mid term evaluation report of the disaster risk management programmeIFRCPublished: June 2015Evaluation reports

This mid-term evaluation assesses the progress of the disaster risk management project titled “Strengthening capacities to cope with disasters” in Haiti. Its purpose is to measure the progress towards achieving the desired outcome and provide relevant recommendations on the future orientation of the project for the remainder of the implementation period.

 Mid-term Evaluation of Emergency ResponseConcernStarted: July 2010
Published: July 2010
Evaluation reports

Purpose: To evaluate Concern’s response programme in the first six months following the January 12th earthquake with particular emphasis on appropriateness, timeliness, efficiency and effectiveness of the interventions carried out.

Objectives focus on: 1. The process; 2. The quality, effectiveness, efficiency and impact of the response; 3. The level of connectedness and coherence of the response.; 4. Relevance of Concern’s systems to cope with a major sudden onset emergency –HR, Finance, Procurement and Logistics systems.; 5. The extent to which ‘lessons’ or recommendations from previous emergencies were incorporated into this response; 6. Identify lessons to be learned to inform the future emergency responses of Concern.

Methodology: Participatory process: 1. Review of relevant secondary data – e.g. proposals, donor reports, and case studies; 2. Meet and/or interview key staff in Concern’s head office and US office; 3. Use of appropriate tools and interview/focus groups discussions. 4. Visit the areas where the emergency responses were implemented, using appropriate tools to interview programme participants and other key stakeholders, including partners and project staff - the views of non- beneficiaries should also be included; 5. Debriefing and / or presentation to key staff on key findings and recommendations; 6. Produce and solicit feedback on the draft report from relevant Concern staff in Dublin and Haiti; 7. Production of the final report from the analysis.

 Mobile technology: Listening to the voice of HaitiansELRHA - Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance, HIF - Humanitarian Innovation FundPublished: 2012Research, reports and studies

This case study analyses the innovative development and use of an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system for the first time in a humanitarian setting by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) through the national society, the Haitian Red Cross (HRC). Haiti’s 2010 earthquake was a major opportunity for international aid agencies to address the challenge of improving twoway communication with disaster-affected communities – a facility emphasised as central to emergency response following previous disasters. The IFRC sought to use mobile technology to disseminate crucial information and to gather beneficiary feedback about its operations, to enable greater accountability of international agencies to local communities and to allow these communities a greater decisionmaking role in its disaster response efforts.


 Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning of the AGIRE-funded Response to the Haiti EarthquakeAgenzia Italiana per la Risposta alle EmergenzeStarted: May 2010
Published: May 2010
After action & learning reviews

The main purposes of the consultancy are: 1. Learning to enable AGIRE and its member agencies to learn from the response given in Haiti, in order to undertake corrective actions in real time and to identify lessons for the future at the field and HQ level; 2. Accountability to provide an independent assessment of quality and appropriateness of the AGIRE-funded response throughout the programs as well as immediately after their conclusion.

The evaluation will focus more on strategic approaches adopted by member agencies rather than on details of project implementation. The exercise will draw on analysis and information collected by looking at the overall response of member agencies in Haiti, but it will primarily focus on programs funded by AGIRE. A set of relevant cross cutting themes have to be taken into account throughout the process, namely Gender, Accountability, Participation, Resilience, Use of Local Resources, Poverty Reduction, DRR and Corruption.

Contact: Marco Bertotto,

 Monthly Developments MagazineInterAction Completed: January 2011
Published: January 2011

Monthly Developments Magazine is published 11 times a year by InterAction, the largest alliance of U.S.-based international development and humanitarian non- governmental organizations. With more than 195 members operating in every developing country, InterAction works to overcome poverty, exclusion and suffering by advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

The features in this magazine focused on Haiti include:

  • A closer look at some common criticisms of the post-quake response
  • New Haiti Aid Map project lets users see the broad programmatic picture in practical detail
  • Distinguishing Humanitarian Action from Development
  • Cholera- threat of a serious epidemic looms over Haiti’s already fragile recovery efforts
  • Advocacy in Washington makes a critical difference in Haiti
  • Sean Penn- the actor and humanitarian discusses his views on the involvement of the United States, NGOs, and his own charity in Haiti’s recovery efforts
  • Understanding the often complicated world of U.S. funding for Haiti
  • strengthening opportunities for Children with Disabilities Build back better with focus on inclusive education and disabilities services.
  • A ConversationWith Tom Adams U.S. Special Coordinator for Haiti 
  • An Urban Disaster: Lessons new & old Disaster planning for an increasingly urban world
  • An object lesson in the benefit of including long-term goals in emergency relief efforts
  • Moving from emergency and transitional shelter into permanent housing



 MSF - OCG response to Cholera in HaitiMSFStarted: May 2011
Completed: September 2011
Published: September 2011
Evaluation reports

The MSF response to Cholera in Haiti was of extraordinary scope and happened under extremely difficult circumstances: Cholera re-appeared for the first time after 100 years and spread rapidly given the poor humanitarian situation in the country. While all MSF sections were involved in the response, this evaluation covers the intervention of the Operational Centre Geneva (OCG) between October 2010 and February 2011. The intervention is judged very successful: Innovative approaches were applied for the management of Cholera in pregnant women, for decentralised care in remote rural areas and for the treatment of excreta in treatment facilities. Social mobilisation was the key for rapid intervention and scale up. MSF had an important technical lead role in the nation-wide Cholera response. One of the main recommendations is on the need for MSF to move beyond its mainly curative response to more effectively prevent the spread of an epidemic.

 Network Paper 70: Applying Conflict Sensitivity in Emergency Response ODIPublished: October 2011Research, reports and studies

 How can emergency response be delivered in a more conflict-sensitive manner? To what extent should this be a priority for the sector? What practical tools and approaches have aid agencies used to better understand their contexts of intervention and minimize conflict risks?

As these issues become increasingly prominent in regions of the world as diverse as the Horn of Africa, Afghanistan and Libya, Network Paper 70 offers insights to these pressing questions.

Drawing on field research from Haiti, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, this paper maps the current state of conflict-sensitive practice in emergencies. It identifies good practices which can be built upon, key gaps, and points out practical ways to integrate conflict sensitivity more strategically across the emergency programme cycle.

One of the key conclusions from this study is that there are clear opportunities for synergy between conflict sensitivity integration and the emergency capacity-building initiatives currently ongoing within many agencies. Significant improvements can be achieved through relatively simple steps which complement existing tools, standards and efforts to improve programme quality. The paper suggests six minimum standards for conflict sensitive emergency response which, if applied, would not only help minimize harm and reduce conflict risks but also increase the overall effectiveness of humanitarian response.

This paper is based on research commissioned by CARE International UK and CAFOD on behalf of the Conflict Sensitivity Consortium with the participation of World Vision International, Peace and Community Action, Catholic Relief Services, ActionAid International and Plan International.

 Nine months of action by Handicap International: Haiti situation updateHandicap InternationalCompleted: October 2010
Published: October 2010
Research, reports and studies

An earthquake measuring 7 on the Richter scale hit Haiti at 4:53 PM (local time) on January 12, 2010. Handicap International's 100-strong team, present in the field when the earthquake struck, escaped unharmed and launched an immediate response to the emergency. Over the following weeks, Handicap International rolled out a vast program of emergency aid - the biggest in its history. Nine months after the earthquake, the association's response is continuing and evolving.

The association places a particular emphasis on mobile teams whose task is to ensure the followup of the most vulnerable people, amputees, quadriplegics and paraplegics. The goal is to ensure that these people, who are particularly vulnerable or have been weakened by the disaster and who live in highly disadvantaged situations, have access to a complete range of services and benefit from aid specific to their needs.

Handicap International is committed to a three-year to five-year strategy designed to ensure the long-term sustainability of its actions and the emergence of local skills, particularly in relation to the case-management of people severely affected by the earthquake.

 Nobody Remembers Us: Failure to Protect Women's and Girls' Right to Health and Security in Post Earthquake HaitiHuman Rights WatchPublished: 2011Research, reports and studies


Based on research conducted in Port-au-Prince in late 2010 and early 2011—and
interviews with 128 women and girls living in 15 displacements camps in 7 of the 12
earthquake-affected communes—this report looks at women’s and girls’ access to
reproductive and maternal care in post-earthquake Haiti. It examines the impact that food
insecurity has on reproductive and maternal health; the reliance on transactional sex that
some women and girls have developed in order to survive; and their vulnerability to, and
the consequences of, gender-based violence (GBV). It also considers Haiti’s human rights
obligations, and the need for mutual accountability between the government and donor
states and non-state actors in the country.
The report finds, 18 months after the earthquake, the voices of women affected by the
earthquake have been excluded from the reconstruction process—even though women are
integral to the country’s economy. Moreover, initial optimism felt by international aid agencies and donors that access to maternal health would improve in areas affected by
the disaster has not been realized for all women and girls. This is despite an outpouring of
international support and of new, free services run by international nongovernmental
organizations (NGOs) that promised to remove the geographic and economic barriers that
had historically prevented women and girls from accessing health care.
For the women and girls interviewed by Human Rights Watch in the camps, their enjoyment
human rights, such as the rights to life and health, remains poor (not withstanding
benefits accruing from the presence of free care and experts on the ground), and most of
them lack basic information that would allow them to access available services. Indeed, as
is widely recognized, Human Rights Watch found evidence of three types of delay that
contribute to pregnancy-related mortality: delay in deciding to seek appropriate medical
care; delay in reaching an obstetric facility; and delay in receiving adequate care when
reaching a facility. For the women and girls we interviewed, these delays occurred because
women and girls did not recognize signs of early labor or were unfamiliar with a new
neighborhood; because the places where they previously received care had been
destroyed in the earthquake; because of distance, security concerns, or transportation
costs; and because of inadequate care at facilities.

 Norwegian Humanitarian Response to Natural Disasters - Case of Haiti Earthquake January 2010NORADPublished: March 2010Programme/project reviews

The main purpose of this review is for the MFA to learn from and further develop the humanitarian assistance based on the concrete and operational experiences with the support to Haiti. The aim of the review is two-fold:
1. To document the first phase response of MFA to the earthquake disaster in Haiti.
2. To assess the response in light of previous Norwegian experiences with response to
large natural disasters as documented in reviews and evaluations.

 Observatory on Public Policies and on International Cooperation - A General Overview of Development Assistance for Haiti Published: 2013Plans, policy and strategy

For several years, the impact of foreign aid on Haiti’s deve- lopment has been questioned. Following the earthquake of 12 January 2010, international donors multiplied their pled- ges in order to respond to the emergency (“humanitarian aid”) as well as to support the recovery and long-term deve- lopment of the country. More than US$ 13 billion was pro- mised for the period of 2010 - 2020 and significant sums have already been disbursed (OSE, 2012)1.
Official development assistance consists of donations and certain loans (at concessional terms) from the public sector with the purpose of promoting the economic development and welfare of a given country1. Thus, in official aid statis- tics, neither private donations (at least US$ 3 billion worth of private donations were traced after the seism) nor mili- tary spending are included.


 One Year On: 1 in 5 Older Haitians in Camps Going HungryHelpAge InternationalPublished: January 2011Blogs


Around 20% of older people living in temporary camps in Haiti are going hungry, according to a survey conducted by HelpAge International.

One year on from the earthquake, data shows that out of over 11,000 older people we interviewed, 2,330 eat only one meal or less a day.

Food aid distributions to camps for internally displaced people stopped in April 2010, at the request of the Haitian government.

Months later, reasonably priced food is extremely difficult to find. This situation looks set to get worse as global food prices hit record highs last week.

 One year on: Haiti Earthquake ResponseWorld VisionPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies

On 12 January 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck the nation of Haiti, the most
powerful quake to hit in more than 200 years. The impact and aftershocks were devastating.
Survivors struggled to find shelter. Limited food and water, overcrowding and unsanitary
conditions characterised the capital of Port-au-Prince and other affected urban centres. The
young, old, sick and injured were forced to sleep on the streets without basic supplies as
aftershocks jolted through the ruins.

 Operation Update No. 33 - Haiti: Earthquake RecoveryIFRCPublished: 21 March 2012Programme/project reviews

Summary: More than two and a half years after the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti, humanitarian assistance to aid the affected population in their recovery continues in the country. The Red Cross Red Crescent, in collaboration with Haitian authorities are still deeply involved in this process. This update, which covers from July until September 2012, describes the role of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) that, together with the Haiti Red Cross Society (HRCS) and Partner National Societies (PNSs) still support the Haitian people in the post-earthquake recovery and long-term development.


 Operational Learning - CNA Common Issues; A review of 4 case studies: Pakistan, Indonesia, Myanmar and HaitiACAPS - The Assessment Capacities Project Published: 2010Lessons papers

Issues and problems addressed in this document were identified during the Revinge Workshop on Need assessment capacity building in may 2010.

The column “ How to address this issue” and “Final output” have been developed by ACAPs staff capturing comments or propositions made during the Workshop. It does not necessarily reflects ACAPS opinion on how to solve those issues.


 Oxfam GB - Helpline "400"OxfamPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies

–to gauge aid recipients’ perceptions (negative or positive)
–to receive “quick feedback” information about problems and shortcomings on the ground
–to provide fast, appropriate solutions
–to respond to questions about Oxfam GB’s actions and strategies in its emergency response
–to provide another way of recording complaints and grievances
–to act as a learning experience
–indirectly: to test the relevance of Oxfam’s actions and uncover any other needs that have not yet been identified.

 Oxfam GB Emergency Food Security and Livelihoods Urban Programme Evaluation: Final ReportOxfamPublished: March 2012Evaluation reports

The global urban population is now larger than the rural population. While rural areas in general remain worse off than urban areas, the number of people in urban poverty is growing fast, and urban dwellers are vulnerable to significant disasters. Development and humanitarian agencies are therefore increasingly exploring how they can work better in urban areas, where they have traditionally had comparatively little experience.

This report sets out findings from three assessments of Oxfam’s urban emergency food security and livelihoods programmes in Nairobi (Kenya), Port-au-Prince (Haiti) and Gaza. The purpose of the assessments was to explore the following areas:
• Appropriateness
• Timeliness
• Targeting
• Impact
• Accountability
• Partners’ experience

The three programmes differed substantially and responded to very different types of vulnerability:
• The Nairobi Urban Social Protection Programme (NUSPP), which included cash transfers, cash for work, skills training and business grants, and advocacy to the government for scale-up. The assessment is based on primary fieldwork.
• Oxfam’s Emergency Food Security and Livelihoods (EFSL) response to the earthquake in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, which included cash for work, food and cash grants, training and in kind transfers. This assessment is based on Levron 2011.
• The Gaza Food Security and Livelihoods Programme (GFSL), which included cash for work, a voucher programme, training and support to income generation. This assessment is based on Levron 2011.

The methodology for each study was based on a review of documents and semi-structured interviews and group discussions with programme officers, other stakeholders, and participants in the programmes.

 Oxfam in HaitiOxfamPublished: June 2012Factsheets and summaries

Haiti is exposed to geological natural catastrophes such as hurricanes, earthquakes
and flooding. For 30 years, Haiti has faced major political crises which have negatively impacted the country’s socio-economic situation. About 70% of the active Haitian population is unemployed or underemployed, and the poverty rate is 76%. In spite of the destruction
caused by the earthquake and the cholera epidemic, Haiti still has a lot of potential
to develop in several sectors, such as inagro-industry and tourism.

Two years after the earthquake, more than 420 000 Haitians still live in tents
and under tarps in more than 600 camps* around the earthquake zone. There are
still serious challenges for the Haitian government: reconstruction of the urban
area of Port-au-Prince and surrounding cities, and insuring affected people have
access to decent homes. The cholera epidemic has affected more than half a million
people and caused more than 7,100 fatalities, mostly because of the lack of
access to clean water, improved sanitation infrastructures and public health
centres. Many Haitians’ food supplies are not secure.

 Oxfam USA survey: Haitians talk about rebuilding the countryOxfamCompleted: March 2010
Published: April 2010
Plans, policy and strategy
 Paul Conneally: Digital humanitarianismPublished: 2012Audio-visual material

The disastrous earthquake in Haiti taught humanitarian groups an unexpected lesson: the power of mobile devices to coordinate, inform, and guide relief efforts. At TEDxRC2, Paul Conneally shows extraordinary examples of social media and other new technologies becoming central to humanitarian aid.


 Preparing for the Next Urban Disaster - 10 lessons from Haiti for aid agenciesDECPublished: 22 February 2011Audio-visual material

Preparing for the next urban disasters- 10 lessons from Haiti for aid agencies. The presentation summarises the findings of DEC Haiti urban study "Urban Disasters -- Lessons from Haiti". The study of members agencies response to Haiti highlights practical lessons that should guide future urban disaster responses.

 Primary Health Care Project World VisionStarted: September 2010Research, reports and studies

The World Vision Haiti Earthquake Response program plans to conduct an objective End of Project (EOP) evaluation of the SIDA funded Primary Health Care Project. The project is aimed to provide access of primary health care services among the earthquake affected families in 10 camps, targeting IDPs.

Contact: Kerstin Hahn,

 Priority setting amid the rubble: Organisational approaches to post-disaster reconstruction in HaitiPublished: 2014Articles

This paper examines organisational priority setting with respect to post-disaster reconstruction through a case study of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Interviews were conducted with 52 organisations, across seven categories, working in Port-au-Prince. Results show that these organisations can be grouped as specialists or generalists in terms of priority setting. Specialists are more likely to be funders or well-resourced organisations. Generalists are smaller organisations that are typically beneficiaries of funding, including small international NGOs and Haitian NGOs. International funders acted on a relatively standard repertoire of global priorities, while the priorities of generalist organisations were more readily modified and were influenced by a need to securere sources from funders.

 Promoting generational change in the Red Cross National Societies of the AmericasIFRCStarted: March 2012
Completed: December 2012
Published: April 2014
Evaluation reports

The Promoting Generational Change in the National Societies of the Americas programme was a continental three-year programme (2010-2012) financed by the Finnish Red Cross and technically supported by the IFRC Americas Zone Office and the Regional Representation Offices of the Americas. The programme aimed to contribute into Strategy 2020's Enabling Action 1: Build Strong National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, which calls to educate, enable and empower young people "to be active in leading and participating in voluntary activities and in the governance, management services of their National Societies". The programme focused on the expansion of youth volunteer empowerment and capacity building in order to enable young volunteers to genuinely engage in Red Cross leadership. The following continental programme objectives were adapted to the local contexts: 1. Strengthen youth leadership skills in the National Societies. 2. Promote the role of youth as contributors to National Society programmatic and organisational development. 3. Promote renewed emphasis on the membership and role of Red Cross youth networks.

 Protecting people in cities: the disturbing case of HaitiPublished: March 2012Research, reports and studies


Disaster struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 in the form of a 7.0 earthquake which left some 223,000 people dead, 300,000 injured, and 2 million homeless. This 60-second earthquake, occurring in Léogâne, near the capital city, Port-au-Prince, had a particularly devastating impact on the Haitian government, with nearly 30 percent of its civil servants killed, all but one government ministry building destroyed, and basic infrastructure wiped out.1 The United Nations (UN) experienced its greatest loss of life on a single day ever, when 102 staff members died (Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance (ALNAP) 2011). By any standards, it was a mega-disaster.
The international community mobilized rapidly and massively to assist Haiti. UN and other international agencies deployed staff quickly, thousands of NGOs rushed to the scene, donor governments and military forces sent personnel and some $3 billion was pledged in relief and recovery efforts. Indeed almost two-thirds of all international funds mobilized for natural disaster response in 2010 went to Haiti (Ferris & Petz 2011). Clusters, the international mechanism for coordinating humanitarian response, were set up, international staff arrived by the hundreds in Port-au-Prince, programs were established and aid poured in.
It was a monumental effort and there have been many efforts to evaluate the international humanitarian response to the Haitian earthquake. Indeed, as of February 2011 ALNAP counted 45 evaluations of response to the earthquake (ALNAP 2011). In summarizing the results of these evaluations, ALNAP identified several commonly-identified shortcomings:
• a ceaseless flow of often-inexperienced small NGOs and in-kind donations;
• a limited understanding of the context, particularly the urban setting;
• by-passing of local authorities and civil society groups;
• insufficient communication with affected populations;
• lack of attention to how assistance could better support coping strategies; and
• weak humanitarian leadership structures, including a weak relationship with military.


Published version of this document avilable for payment at:

 Real-time EvaluationIFRCStarted: April 2010Evaluation reports

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the coordination and management systems of the Haiti earthquake response operation, focusing on both relief and early recovery concerns.

Contact: Josse Gillijns,

 Real-time evaluation of humanitarian action supported by DG ECHO in Haiti: 2009-2011 November 2010 -April 2011 Groupe URDPublished: 1 January 2011Evaluation reports

In keeping with EU regulations and in
view of the substantial amount of funding
which has been mobilised for Haiti since
2008, an operational and strategic evaluation
was carried out from November 2010 to
April 2011. This evaluation included a field
visit from 28 January to 28 February, which
was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team
of four experts and covered the work of the
DIPECHO programme, the Global Plan and
the response to both the earthquake of 12
January and the cholera crisis. It was part of
a broader prospective process between
January and May 2011 which produced a
note on Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and
Development (LRRD), an in-depth literature
review and a series of visual presentations in
video format.


 Real-time evaluation of DG ECHO's response to the Haiti crisis and reviewECHOCompleted: August 2011
Published: August 2011
Evaluation reports

This evaluation of the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (DG ECHO)’s operations and strategy in Haiti is in keeping with Articles 7 and 18 of Council Regulation 1257/96 concerning humanitarian aid and Article 27 of the Financial Regulation (EC, Euratom) 1605/2002.

DG ECHO has been running programmes in Haiti for more than fifteen years. These programmes have concerned issues related to disaster preparedness (DIPECHO programmes), the response to natural disasters and the humanitarian consequences of political and economic turmoil (different types of emergency decisions). On the basis of an analysis of the humanitarian situation carried out in 2007, an ad hoc decision was made in 2008 which allowed programmes in the sector of Maternal and Child Health to be funded, complementing the funding of projects in connection with decisions made on the Food Aid budget line. In 2009, to respond to the high levels of malnutrition following the hurricanes of 2008, DG ECHO opened an office in Port-au-Prince and established a Global Plan. In the hours following the earthquake of 12 January 2010, DG ECHO rapidly mobilized funds both through the European Civil Protection mechanism and by making funds available to its partners via primary emergency, emergency and ad hoc funding decisions. These efforts continued in response to the cholera crisis from October 2010. At the end of 2010 and during the first weeks of 2011, DG ECHO clarified its objectives for 2011 as well as its coordination strategy with other European instruments and the Member States.

The evaluation covered all these arrangements and actions at both strategic and operational levels in order to help DG ECHO and its partners to be as accountable as possible and draw as many lessons as possible from this series of operations.

 Real-time Evaluation of Tearfund's Haiti Earthquake ResponseTearfundCompleted: May 2010
Published: May 2010
Evaluation reports

Tearfund conducted an RTE for their phase 2 response in Haiti (the first 6 months). The prime purpose of the evaluation was to learn from the second phase of the response, which started in mid-February following the one-month emergency response phase, and to identify lessons both for the remainder of Phase 2 (until July 30 2010) and for Phase 3, which is envisaged as the recovery and reconstruction.

 Real-time evaluation of the response to the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010French Ministry of DefenceCompleted: April 2010
Published: April 2010
Evaluation reports


To review, in as factual and neutral a way as possible, the national and international actors and bodies involved in the response to the crisis.

2. To evaluate the level of coherence between needs and the emergency relief provided.
The evaluation included critical analysis of the relevance of the emergency relief delivered by civilian and military actors in relation to the needs of the affected population and the specific constraints of this operational context. The conclusions of this analysis will guide future decisions with regard to preparation and planning of French actors’ response to crises at the national level and in relation to multilateral issues.

3. To speak to beneficiaries and to try to understand how they perceive the response, how
they judge the quality of the aid provided and the aid agencies, and how they perceive the future.

4. To analyse the response in terms of defence and security and identify lessons learned and know-how needed via the activities of the MINUSTAH, the US military deployment and  overlapping external military interventions.

The evaluation focuses on the following points:

- the constraints involved in the response;
- the initial situation and needs assessment;
- the sequence of events involved in the response to the earthquake;
- the impact of international relief on security.

These highlight improvements which need to be made to the inter-ministerial mechanism which is currently being put in place and recommendations are made for way of improving the way the response to crises is planned by the state.

 Rebuilding cities after crisis: Urban recovery and reconstruction - Lessons learnt from Haiti  Groupe URDPublished: September 2012Presentations
 Reconstructing HaitiOxfamPublished: January 2010Factsheets and summaries
Oxfam has been working in Haiti since 1978. We have focused on supporting communities and local government in sustainable livelihoods, disaster risk reduction, good governance and humanitarian assistance. In response to the earthquake, Oxfam is providing life-saving water and sanitation, working closely with other organizations to ensure that assistance is well-coordinated. We are also supporting local organizations with which we have a long-term relationship to assess and respond to the humanitarian crisis in other affected areas
 Red Cross Telefon Kwa Wouj reaches 2 million callers in two yearsIFRCPublished: 26 March 2014Websites

The Red Cross Interative information line in Haiti has registered its 2 millionth call, less than two years after it was introduced to the Haitian population.

Known in the telecommunications world as an IVR, the interactive voice response system is widely used in the private sector for services such as telephone banking and automated ticket purchases, however Telefon Kwa Wouj marks the first time the technology has been used in a humanitarian context anywhere in the world.


 Rental Support Cash Grant Programs: Operation ManualWBPublished: 2014Tools, guidelines and methodologies

The purpose of this Operational Manual is to describe Rental Support Cash Grant (RSCG) programs and to explain how these programs can provide shelter assistance for displaced populations after emergencies. The Operational Manual provides guidance on the design and implementation of RSCG programs and also advises on the specific circumstances in which RSCG programs can be an appropriate tool.
The Manual is intended to inform the replication of this methodology in other contexts, but is not intended to be rigidly prescriptive. The Manual was developed from a single context – Haiti, after the 2010 earthquake – and this limitation is openly acknowledged. It is hoped that the methodology described here will further evolve and improve through implementation elsewhere and that improvements will be recorded in subsequent iterations of the Manual.


 Response to the Evaluation of the Haiti Earthquake 2010 Meeting Shelter Needs: Issues, Achievements and ConstraintsPublished: 2011Conference, training & meeting documents

 A 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the Haitian coast on 12 January 2010. The epicentre was located 22 kilometres from the capital Port-au-Prince, and 15 kilometres from the closest towns. The most-affected area was the Ouest province, and the most-affected cities were: Port-au-Prince, Carrefour, Léogâne, and Jacmel.
The Government of Haiti requested international assistance and clusters were activated. The Shelter/NFI Cluster (SC) was initially led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), and on February 3rd it was agreed that IFRC would take the lead of the cluster. IOM continued to provide assistance to cluster partners by managing the non-food items (NFI) pipeline. IFRC sent a Shelter Coordination Team to support the Haitian government in the inter-agency coordination of shelter actors. This team was made up of a national coordination team and a number of hubs including Port-au-Prince, and included as well personnel from the IFRC Secretariat, Red Cross National Societies, and cluster partners. IFRC handed over the coordination of the Shelter/NFI Cluster to UNHABITAT on 10 November 2010.
The Shelter/NFI Cluster helped coordinate the efforts of more than 80 agencies. The emergency shelter distribution effort in Haiti was one of the fastest ever mounted, compared to other big scale disasters (South East Asia tsunami, Pakistan earthquake, etc.)

 Response to the Humanitarian Crisis in Haiti following the 12 January 2010 EarthquakeIASCCompleted: July 2010
Published: July 2010
Lessons papers

This report is compiled following a request by the Principals of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)2 at a meeting on 6 May 2010. The report is written 6 months after the 12 January earthquake in Haiti and is concerned primarily with the response by IASC members to the disaster, but necessarily refers to the role of other key actors, including the Haitian population and Government, international militaries, the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), and regional entities. The report describes the response of the humanitarian community to the earthquake, outlining the main achievements and challenges encountered, proposes lessons which can be learned from the initial phase of the humanitarian response, and summarizes some aspects of the way forward.

 Review and Systematization of Disaster Preparedness Experiences in Urban Areas In the Caribbean RegionEC, OxfamPublished: July 2010After action & learning reviews


Oxfam’s portfolio of urban disaster risk reduction projects in the Caribbean region are at the forefront of current practice. They offer an opportunity to review outputs, practice and lessons learned for Oxfam and the wider DRR community. This report aims to take that opportunity. Specifically it presents a review of DRR work in four urban contexts:

• Inner-city settlements in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic (Intermón Oxfam
projects 2007-currrent) with The European Commission
• Peri-urban settlements around Georgetown, Guyana (Oxfam projects 2006-2009) with The
European Commission
• The municipality of Cap-Haitien, Haiti (Oxfam projects between 2003 and 2009) with The
European Commission
• Metropolitan region of Port au Prince, Haiti (Oxfam projects from 2006-current) with
Government of Haiti/World Bank.

This summary provides an overview of key findings. The structure presents comments on the methodology used in the review, outcomes, interaction with local government and populations at risk, gender equity, challenges and opportunities for disaster risk reduction specific to urban contexts and an assessment of the sustainability of project outcomes. Finally lessons learned relevant to urban disaster risk reduction more generally are put forward


 Review of Cash-Transfer Coordination in Haiti Following the Earthquake of Jan 2010CaLP, Groupe URDPublished: 1 March 2012Programme/project reviews


Following the earthquake of January 2010 which hit the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince and neighbouring cities, humanitarian organisations chose to implement Cash Transfer Programmes (CTPs), Cash-For-Work (CFW) programmes, and direct cash transfer programmes and coupon distributions as the markets in Port-au-Prince had the potential to meet the needs of those affected by the disaster. Humanitarian coordination was rapidly put in place through the cluster approach. Certain NGOs, including members of the Cash Learning Partnership (CaLP), organised an ad hoc coordination mechanism for CTPs.
This study, which was commissioned by the CaLP, aims to review and document the coordination of cash transfer programmes implemented from the emergency phase in Haiti. It is part of a wider review of CTP coordination in emergency situations which includes 3 case studies (Pakistan, Haiti and the Horn of Africa). The earthquake in Haiti is an example of a large-scale natural disaster in an urban environment where there is little knowledge about CTPs in the country prior to the crisis.

 Revisiting Haiti´s Gangs and Organized ViolenceHASOW - Humanitarian Action in Situations Other than War, HiCNPublished: June 2013Research, reports and studies

This paper consititues a modest attempt to unpack what is known and what is unknown about Haiti's armed urban groups. It is based on a review of the existing literature as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis of data collected from members of armed groups, their funders, their partisan backers, and residents of the neighborhoods in which they operate. The paper starts by examining how armed urban gangs are defined by outsiders and how they define themselves. Next the paper presents findings from qualitative interviews with members of armed groups including discussions about their understandings of the nature and justification for armed conflict. The paper concludes by presendting suggestions for determining the organization and intensity of armed conflict involving urban gangs in Haiti. 

 Safe Haven: Sheltering Displaced Persons from Sexual and Gender-Based Violence - Case Study: HaitiUNHCRPublished: May 2013Research, reports and studies


As part of its Sexual Violence Program, the Human Rights Center conducted a one-year study in 2012 to explore and improve understanding of the options for immediate, temporary shelter for refugees, internally displaced persons, and other migrants fleeing sexual and gender-based violence in countries affected by conflict or natural disaster. We define “shelter” flexibly. For example, it may come in the form of a traditional safe house, a network of community members’ homes, or another safe space coordinated by a base organization.
Our aim was to generate research-based evidence to inform donors, policymakers, and international and local actors about types of relevant models, priority challenges, and promising practices.5 The study focused on three key objectives:
1. Identify and describe shelter models available to refugees, the internally displaced, and migrants fleeing sexual and gender-based violence.
2. Identify unique challenges experienced by staff and residents in these settings and explore strategies to respond to these challenges.
3. Explore protection needs and options for particularly marginalized victim groups, such as male survivors, sexual minorities, sex workers, and people with disabilities.
The aim and objectives were the same across each of the studies carried out in Colombia, Haiti, Kenya, and Thailand. Our research focused primarily on programs that served communities of refugees, migrants, and internally displaced persons (IDPs), including those operating in a camp setting. We also studied mainstream shelters to identify protection options and innovations in urban settings.
Study outputs include four country-specific reports and one comparative assessment that contain guiding considerations for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other stakeholders involved in the provision of protection to these populations.


 Savings and Chance; Learning from the Lottery to Improve Financial Services in HaitiFeinstein International Center, Tufts UniversityPublished: 20 July 2010Research, reports and studies

Savings and Chance, a study by a team from the Center for Emerging Market Enterprises (CEME) at the Fletcher School at Tufts University explores the ubiquity of gambling practices in Haiti and their implication for financial services. As findings indicate, the Haitian lottery, known as the borlette, appears as a historical and cultural response to economic and social marginalization, as well as a manifestation of undeterred hope for a transformational lump sum, a sum large enough to allow them to escape their current circumstances. Formal and semi-formal financial institutions have a lot to learn from the borlette, which, in the minds of its users, is a pastime, a vice, a way to engage the spiritual realm, and a financial service.

With few employment prospects, mouths to feed, and small businesses to manage, accumulating cash to invest in an enterprise, home, or education becomes a difficult task in Haiti. To address the need for cash, many Haitians turn to the borlette for the chance to win a transformational lump sum. Over 35,000 lottery stalls in almost every village in Haiti present the poor with a possibility of earning 10, 20 or 50 times their wager to convert insignificant amounts of money into meaningful capital. Many Haitians overlook steady losses of playing the borlette since that same system in fact generates cash.


 Seed System Security Assessment, HaitiUSAIDCompleted: August 2010
Published: August 2010
Research, reports and studies

This report documents the impact of Haiti’s 2010 earthquake on farmers, and highlights chronic problems in the agricultural sector that could impede recovery. This document reports on a comprehensive seed system security assessment (SSSA) in Haiti, undertaken in May-June 2010. The work, the first ever SSSA in Haiti or the wide region, assessed the impact of the January 2010 earthquake on households and agricultural livelihoods, examining possible changes in assets, land holdings, labour availability, income generation activities, crop profiles and seed use. The work analysed acute seed security issues, particularly farmers’ strategies for obtaining seeds, and the impacts of past emergency seed aid. More chronic seed security problems were also analysed, including the effectiveness of markets (which provide 80% of seed in Haiti), the transformation of agricultural products, and access to modern varieties.

 Six months of action by Handicap International: Haiti situation updateHandicap InternationalCompleted: July 2010
Published: July 2010
Research, reports and studies

 Six months after an earthquake devastated Haiti on January 12, 2010, Handicap International has
made a provisional assessment of the situation, which you can find below along with an outline of
its plans for the future. The association has a team of 480 people in Haiti, including 70 expatriate
staff. It is the association’s largest ever deployment. Handicap International’s action is based on
three key pillars: 1. health, 2. meeting basic needs and 3. managing a logistics platform.

A central role in the effective coordination of humanitarian aid
As part of the management of a logistics platform of 70 trucks, under the auspices of the World Food
Programme (WFP), Handicap International has transported humanitarian aid for some 100 organizations,
including some 15 Haitian organizations.

On January 26, 2010, the United Nations and the World Health Organization requested two international
nongovernmental organizations, Handicap International and the German organization Christoffel-Blindenmission
(CBM), to lead the Injury, Rehabilitation and Disability Working Group within the U.N. Health Cluster in
coordination with the Haitian Secretariat of State for the Inclusion of People with Disabilities. This Working
Group is coordinating all activity in Haiti concerning the rehabilitation of injured persons, the fitting of
orthopedic devices and the provision of assistance to people with disabilities.

Within this framework, Handicap International and CBM are working with the Haitian Ministry for Public Health
and Population (MSPP) and the Secretariat of State for the Inclusion of People with Disabilities (SEIPH) to
coordinate international and national aid stakeholders operating in disability-related fields. Handicap
International is organizing the coordination of international aid operators, while CBM is coordinating Haitian
organizations working in these fields, under the general coordination of the WHO’s Health Cluster.

10,000 people already cared for by Handicap International
To date, more than 10,000 people have benefited from Handicap International’s health actions; 62,000 injury
care or functional rehabilitation sessions have been performed; 4,000 technical aids have been distributed
(mobility aids and orthopedic devices); almost 300 people have been or are in the process of being fitted with a
prosthesis and almost 200 with an orthosis. Handicap International has also implemented psychosocial support
actions concerning 15,000 people.

14,000 tons of humanitarian aid transported for some 100 organizations
Out of the total transported tonnage, 9,000 tons concerned food.

5,000 tents, 24,000 items of equipment and 36 tons of food distributed by Handicap International
More than 5,000 tents were distributed, providing shelter for more than 26,000 people, and 24,000 items of
equipment were distributed to more than 38,000 people.

More than 2,000 people took part in “cash for work” projects set up by Handicap International.

Three to five years needed to rise to the humanitarian challenge in Haiti
The association will gradually focus its actions on more long-term activities. The provision of livable, hurricane-
and earthquake-resistant temporary accommodation for isolated and vulnerable victims of the earthquake will
constitute an important area of action. We will continue to support and rehabilitate the injured while gradually
focusing our attention on the most serious cases and people with disabilities. Next, Handicap International
intends to develop its rehabilitation infrastructure and accessibility projects, disaster preparation and prevention
activities, and diploma-based training for Haitian rehabilitation and orthopedic-fitting staff. The underlying aim
of these actions is to build the capacity of Haitians and to transfer the management of these projects to them
over the long-term.

 Still left in the dark? How People in Emergencies Use Communication to Survive – And How Humanitarian Agencies Can HelpBBC Media Action, UKANPublished: March 2012Plans, policy and strategy

In 2008, a BBC World Service Trust policy briefi ng argued that people affected by earthquakes, fl oods or other emergencies often lacked the information they needed to survive and that this only added to their stress and anxiety. Much has changed since 2008. Thanks to the efforts of several humanitarian and media support NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs), the report helped to galvanise momentum across the humanitarian sector to prioritise communication with the populations it serves. It argues that while many humanitarian agencies continue to see communication as something that is done to raise money or boost the profile of their disaster relief efforts, the sector is, increasingly, seeing the need for a clear strategic focus that responds to the information and communication needs of those affected by disaster.

 Strategic Research into National and Local Capacity Building for Disaster Risk ManagementIFRC, Oxford Policy ManagementPublished: May 2015Research, reports and studies

This fieldwork report is part of a research aimed at drawing lessons and guidance on ‘how to’ build disaster risk management (DRM) capacity in a range of contexts. The research analyses the characteristics, effectiveness and relative importance of a range of capacity building for DRM interventions across a variety of country contexts. It focuses mainly is on ‘what works and why?’ with a methodology based on a case study approach, involving fieldwork in Ethiopia, Pakistan, Myanmar, Philippines, Haiti and Mozambique.

This report provides background on the disaster risk management context of Haiti, the country's current capacity levels and analyses in depth several DRM capacity building programmes recently operational in the country. It also features a series of ‘lessons learned’ from Haiti and compares findings with emerging findings from other countries.

 Supporting Evaluation in Haiti Mission ReportALNAP, Irish Aid, OECD DAC, WFPPublished: 20 September 2010Research, reports and studies

The Haiti Evaluation Task Force, established jointly by the three evaluation networks of ALNAP, the OECD-DAC
Evaluation Network, and the UN Evaluation Group, developed a Concept Note (Attachment 3) on supporting
evaluation in Haiti following the earthquake and the humanitarian response to it.
The Task Force also agreed that it was important and necessary to discuss the ideas put forward in the Concept
Note with stakeholders in Port-au-Prince. A team to undertake these consultations was composed of Hans
Lundgren (OECD-DAC Secretariat), Patrick McManus (IrishAID) and Caroline Heider (WFP) supported by
Francois Grünewald (Groupe URD). The team visited Haiti on behalf of the Task Force.


 Synthesis Paper Case Studies: Manila, Nairobi, Eldoret and HaitiIASCPublished: November 2010Research, reports and studies


1. The objectives of this evaluation of urban case studies are to:
a. review, the tools, practices capacities and methodologies employed by humanitarian
agencies in responding to humanitarian crises and emergencies;
b. develop a robust evidence base to support the strategy formulated for meeting
humanitarian challenges;
c. enhance IASC’s understanding of challenges and gaps encountered in the humanitarian
2. Following recommendations of the IASC Task Force on MHCUA, Nairobi, Eldoret and Manila
and Port au Prince were adopted as representative case studies. They reflect recent and different
types of sudden onset emergencies and disasters (urban violence, severe flooding and hurricanes,
earthquakes) impacting densely populated urban areas. They also illustrate different national and
local government and NGO capacities and partnerships. All the cities experience on-going chronic
conditions because of rapid urbanization, high population densities, deepening poverty and, in the
Kenyan cities, the in-migration of refugees and IDPs.
3. Field visits were conducted in Nairobi, Eldoret and Manila where interviews were held with
stakeholders from the UN system, international humanitarian NGOs donors, national and local
authorities, local civil society representatives and the affected populations. Reviews of existing
reports including evaluations, lessons learned and related documentation were also undertaken. A
desk review was conducted for Haiti.
4. Four institutional and organizational themes and six sectoral issues are highlighted and for each
topic the review: outlines key challenges and gaps experienced by humanitarian agencies;
highlights practices, approaches and tools; provides transferable recommendations to IASC
partners for improving delivery of humanitarian response and preparedness.

 Technical Guide for Debris Management: The Haitian Experience 2010-2012UNDPPublished: 2013Programme/project reviews

Based on the experience gained by UNDP in Haiti, this guide aims to share the key design, programmatic and operational considerations for the implementation of debris management programmes, from a hands-on learning perspective, based on the successes and challenges of the experience, with a particular focus on the actions under its responsibility.


 Technical Paper: The Risk of Disaster-Induced Displacement - Central America and the CaribbeanInternal Displacement Monitoring Centre, NRCPublished: November 2013Research, reports and studies

This technical paper provides evidence-based estimates of the likelihood of disaster-induced displacement in Central American and selected Caribbean states – Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama. It represents a first attempt to better quantify human displacement risk. It brings together data from several sources – notably the Global Assessment Reports (GARs) of the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), national disaster loss inventory databases (DesInventar) and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre’s (IDMC) Global Estimates – in order to better quantify human dis- placement risk. Applying a probabilistic risk model, it is a first attempt to project how many people are at risk of being displaced by natural hazard based disasters.


 TechnoTalk - New tech changed disaster response in Haiti-but what are lessons learnt?Published: January 2010Blogs
 Tecnical review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Activities for T-Shelter BeneficiariesIFRCPublished: July 2014Programme/project reviews

The Technical Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WatSan) activities for T-Shelter Beneficiaries in Leogane, Petit Gôave and Jacmel was commissioned by the International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) in Haiti to identify the lessons learned and best practices of the WatSan activities implemented within the framework of shelter provision in rural areas of Haiti following the 2010 earthquake. The purpose of the technical review is to support the learning process within the Haiti Earthquake Operation as well as to provide insight and guidance for future Red Cross activities of a similar nature, both in Haiti and in other countries. A key component of the review was focused on gathering information on the technical aspects of the implemented activities to be archived for future reference.

The review considered the WatSan activities implemented by seven Red Cross Red Crescent Societies (RC) including the IFRC, the German and Austrian Red Cross’ Joint Recovery Program (GRC/AutRC), Netherlands Red Cross (NRC), Norwegian Red Cross (NorRC), Spanish Red Cross (SpRC) and the Swiss Red Cross (SwissRC) between May 2010 and August 31, 2013. All of the RC projects have ended, with the exception of the GRC/AutRC and SwissRC projects, which are set to end in September 2013 and April 2014 respectively. The review was conducted between August 10, 2013 and September 10, 2013 over a period of 25 days with ten days in Haiti. The project included a range of activities including review of over 100 documents, an on-line survey completed by WatSan staff members, site visits to implemented water and sanitation projects and focus group discussions with project beneficiaries.

 Termes de Reference pour l'Évaluation indépendante finale de la réponse en Eau, Assainissement et Hygiène à l'urgence qui a suivi le séisme du 12 janvier 2010 en HaïtiACF - Action Against HungerStarted: October 2010
Published: October 2010
Tools, guidelines and methodologies

Ce document présente les termes de réféfences pour l'évaluation indépendante finale de la réponse d'ACF en Eau, Assainissement et Hygiène à l'urgence qui a suivi le séisme du 12 janvier 2010 en Haïti.

 Terms of Reference: Haiti Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation 200618 Strengthening Emergency Preparedness and Resilience: An Operation EvaluationWFPPublished: January 2016Evaluation reports

The terms of reference of the Operation Evaluation of the Haiti PRRO 200618 aim to inform stakeholders about the evaluation, clarify expectations and requirements and guide the evaluation team in its work during the various phases of the evaluation. The TOR notably presents the scope, objectives, key issues, stakeholders and users of the evaluation. It also describes the evaluation approach, team composition and organisation.

 The 21st Century Urban DisasterGlobal Communities Published: 2012Research, reports and studies


The Sendai tsunami, floods in Bangkok, earthquake
in Christchurch: three different disasters of 2011
– all in densely populated areas. With the rate of
massive growth now taking place in cities and urban
centers around the world, the likelihood of another
natural disaster hitting the urban poor is only rising.

Report includes a case study of Haiti.


 The central role of cash transfer programmes in the response to the urban disaster in Haiti: lessons learned Groupe URDPublished: April 2012Articles

Now that we are in the transition phase, it seems essential to identify and share lessons and good practices from the humanitarian response to the Haiti earthquake, and notably concerning cash transfer programmes which were central to the urban response. These lessons should be applied both to the new national programmes which are being implemented in Haiti, particularly the initiatives for the most vulnerable people and social protection programmes, and also to the contingency and response plans which are being developed to deal with the risk of new disasters.

 The Community-Based Approach in Haiti: Clarification of the Notion of 'Communities' and RecommendationsGroupe URDPublished: November 2012Research, reports and studies

The study presented in this report is based on one month of field research in Port-au- Prince, from 19 August to 21 September 2012. It aims to define what the community- based approach is in urban contexts. To do this, the research aims to clarify the notion of community in Haiti, and look at operational issues related to the community-based approach. The study therefore focuses on the different solidarity relations and community-based ties which exist in Haiti and makes a number of recommendations to improve the way this approach is applied in the field.
Communities in Haiti are based on three main areas: family, neighbourhood and religion1. The family is a necessary community foundation: its rhythm is organised around the head of the family and the lakou2, a communal living space where everyday activities take place. Neighbourhood relations, which are necessary both socially and economically, sometimes lead to relations of solidarity which are so important that “vwasen se fanmi / vwazinay se janmi”3. Lastly, religious practice creates a community of belief with its specific social events and common practices. But these solidarity relations are generally relatively loose: communities of belief do not always signify actual solidarity.


 The crisis in Haiti shows we need a new approach to NGOsPublished: March 2010Blogs

A hybrid agency run by government and donors could better direct aid. In responding
to the Haitian earthquake, Non-Governmental Organisations are the heroes of the
hour. Even before the disaster Haiti had 10,000 of them, more per head than
anywhere else in the world. They were providing most of the country's schools and
health clinics. As the NGOs further scale-up, the already limited capacity of the state
has been decimated. Essential as the NGOs have been, this imbalance threatens to
leave the state marginalised in the core task of basic service provision.

 The Earthquake in Haiti: The IRC RespondsIRC - International Rescue CommitteePublished: January 2011Research, reports and studies


On January 12, 2010, a magnitude 7 earthquake
struck Haiti about 10 miles southwest of the capital
Port-au-Prince. It killed approximately 230,000
people, injured 300,000 more and destroyed
great swaths of the city and surrounding areas.
In the aftermath, nearly 600,000 people left
Port-au-Prince to live with friends and relatives in
unaffected rural areas. An estimated 250,000 of
these displaced Haitians have since returned to the
capital because they were unable to secure work in
rural areas.1
Haiti is one of the most disaster-prone countries
in the world. It suffers a major catastrophe every
three years. It is one of the world’s most vulnerable
islands to hurricanes, flash flooding, and landslides.
Haiti was still recovering from the 2008 hurricane
season—one of the worst in Caribbean history
(four hurricanes in 30 days)—when the earthquake
struck. The earthquake was the worst disaster in
the Caribbean in 200 years. In just 30 seconds,
Haiti lost 20 percent of its civil servants. The
scale and magnitude of the disaster crippled the
ability of the already weak Haitian government to
meet the basic needs of its people. While Haiti
was still reeling from the earthquake, an outbreak
of cholera in October 2010 quickly spread from
rural areas to towns and cities.2 Recovery and
reconstruction were further undermined by
political and civil unrest following highly contested
presidential and parliamentary elections held on
November 28, 2010. As a result, a year after the
earthquake, nearly 1.3 million people in Portau-
Prince are still displaced and remain living in
crowded spontaneous settlements and tent cities.
Unemployment remains high, buildings are in ruins,
most rubble has yet to be removed and children are
unable to attend school.
Prior to the earthquake, Port-au-Prince was home
to approximately 3 million people, even though the
city was designed to accommodate only 200,000.
The combination of a dearth of jobs in rural areas
and lack of investment in the agricultural sector had
pushed people to migrate into the city, leading to
overcrowded living conditions in Port-au-Prince.
Social and economic inequities also predated
the quake. Before the earthquake, Haiti’s
unemployment rates were as high as 80 percent;
nearly 54 percent of the population lived on less
than $1 per day.3 Required school fees prevented
many children from attending school; only an
estimated 55 percent of children went to school
before the earthquake.4
The earthquake exacerbated all of these problems.
People marginalized by Haitian society, including
children, women, the elderly, and persons with
disabilities, found themselves acutely vulnerable.
Today, far too many Haitians, especially women
and children, are engaged in a daily struggle for
access to basic necessities such as clean water,
economic opportunities, education and protection
from violence.
At the time of the earthquake, the International
Rescue Committee (IRC) did not have programs
in Haiti although the IRC had worked with Haitian
asylum-seekers in the United States. Within hours
of the earthquake, the IRC sent its emergency
response team—including doctors, water and sanitation experts, coordinators and logisticians—to
Haiti to assess the critical needs of survivors and
mount an effective response. In the days and weeks
that followed, the IRC established emergency
operations in Haiti and moved to address the urgent
need for clean water, sanitation and health care, as
well the special needs of women and girls.
Today, the IRC is continuing its work with the
displaced and poor of Port-au-Prince and
surrounding communities. The IRC is preparing to
open a second office in Petit Goave—southwest of
Port-au-Prince—to focus on tracing and reuniting
people who are still separated from their families a
year after the earthquake
The IRC strives to ensure that the most vulnerable
earthquake victims—including the elderly,
persons with disabilities, women and separated or
unaccompanied children—have access to services
and that their views and needs shape the rebuilding
process. Much of this work is done with local
groups and organizations. Moreover, the majority of
IRC staff members in Haiti are Haitian.
This report lists some of the outstanding problems
affecting Haiti and describes how the IRC is
responding. Personal testimonies from IRC field
staff and the people they serve illustrate the
immense challenges they face.

 The effects of stabilisation on humanitarian action in HaitiPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies


Haiti is routinely characterised as an archetypical fragile state. In spite of considerable donor
investment in security promotion, real and perceived safety have proven frustratingly elusive.
In the years before the devastating earthquake of 12 January 2010, the country’s capital, Portau-
Prince, was also the site of considerable experimentation to promote security and stability.
This paper reviews the discourse, practice and outcomes associated with three parallel stabilisation
initiatives undertaken in Haiti between 2007 and 2009. Although they shared many similar
objectives, the paper describes how these separate interventions mobilised very different approaches.
The specific focus is on United States, United Nations and combined Brazilian, Canadian and
Norwegian stabilisation efforts and their implications for humanitarian actors, including the
International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières. The paper concludes
with some reflections on the implications of stabilisation before and after the country’s most
recent natural disaster.

 The Haiti Earthquake: An Urban SolutionOxfamPublished: 2010Research, reports and studies

On 12th of January 2010, an earthquake measuring 7 on
the Richter scale struck Haiti. Approximately 3.5 million
people lived in areas directly affected by the earthquake.
An estimated 220,000 people died during and immediately
after the earthquake and a further 1.5 million people were
displaced. The earthquake dramatically increased the levels
of unemployment, with productive assets lost or damaged
and infrastructure shattered. The earthquake resulted in a
significant increase in household food insecurity and loss of
As a result of the earthquake, poverty levels were estimated
to have risen by 30-50% in Port au Prince (PaP) and by
80% in the commune of Carrefour. Across the city, people
struggled to afford to eat, as food became less affordable
and less accessible. Early assessments have indicated
that people resorted to a range of coping strategies, from
reducing the number of meals and borrowing money, to
selling assets and engaging in sex work.

 The Humanitarian Response Index 2011: Addressing the gender challengeDARA InternationalPublished: December 2011Research, reports and studies

In 2011, DARA analysed the efficiency of 70% global humanitarian funding provided by 23 OECD - DAC donor governments in the following crises: Chad, Kenya, Somalia, occupied Palestinian territories, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Sudan, Colombia and Haiti. Interviews were carried out with more than 400 representatives from 250 organizations. Our research has shown that gender continues to be a challenge. Women and girls that live in areas of armed conflict and disaster suffer the worst consequences of crises due to their heightened level of vulnerability and exposure to risk. HRI teams will research best practices in the way that donors address gender, and other issues, offering practical recommendations to improve the support provided.

Unfortunately, our findings for the 2011 edition of the Humanitarian Response Index confirm that the issues raised in previous editions largely persist. The ability of the humanitarian sector to deliver assistance has improved over time, but progress in consolidating good donor practices and reforming the sector has been limited. Based on the experience and findings of five years of HRI research, our conclusion is that most donors have not significantly altered their approaches in order to apply good practices, and the pace of reform efforts is too slow for the humanitarian sector to be able to adequately meet current needs, much less prepare for, anticipate, mitigate and respond to a trend of increasingly complex crises in the coming decade. - See more at:

 The Listen and Learn Project: Improving Aid Accountability in HaitiDARA International, KeystonePublished: October 2014Research, reports and studies

The Listen and Learn project, a joint DARA/Keystone initiative funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aimed to improve the accountability of aid efforts in Haiti and provide a model for greater beneficiary accountability in relief and recovery programming. The project highlights the need for beneficiary accountability as an integral part of programming and a donor requirement, effective beneficiary feedback mechanisms, a culture of adaptation and flexibility, and feedback as a key component of monitoring and evaluation.

 The Market System for Construction Labor in Port au Prince, HaitiPublished: February 2010Research, reports and studies

This Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis looked at the opportunities for earthquakeaffected
populations to gain employment in the construction sector. Prior to the earthquake,
construction had been identified as an area of potential job growth and a priority sector for the
government, however there was a mismatch between skills available in the labor market and
jobs available. Professional, skilled, and semi-skilled workers were all in demand, but this
demand was often filled by foreigners, in particular workers from the Dominican Republic. Now,
as a result of the destruction, labor opportunities in the construction sector are anticipated to
increase ten-fold.
Previously, formal training for the construction sector was provided through universities (of
which four are recognized as providing a high quality education), numerous technical schools,
and a few NGO training centers. However, about 40-50% of workers were trained through
apprenticeships and on the job training, for periods up to two years. Quality of education varied
widely across formal training options, with some estimates indicating that students were learning
only 60-70% of the skills needed. Professionalism and other non-technical competencies, such as
project management, were also regularly noted as being in high demand, but difficult to find.
With all four of the universities known for training engineers and many technical schools
destroyed in the earthquake the options for quickly training professional, skilled, and semi-skilled
workers are severely limited. A rough estimate indicates that 100,000 people will need to be
trained to ensure Haitians have access to new jobs in the construction sector. Universities,
training centers, and informal training mechanisms must be immediately supported to “build
back better” if Haitians are to benefit from the increased employment opportunities in their
Access to heavy equipment, availability of construction credit at the household and business
level, and clarity on government policies will play a large role in how quickly the reconstruction
efforts can truly start and employment benefits be gained. Humanitarian efforts now are
focused on transitional shelters that can be built by three people in one day. However, this
shelter is only designed to last 3-4 years. The trauma of the earthquake has created a window of
opportunity to change building practices and preferences, as people have direct experience of
the importance of appropriate construction practices and good quality construction materials.
Yet the opportunity for change is small compared to the size of the task ahead. Initial damage
estimates indicate that it could take up to 10 years to rebuild to previous levels, before
considering future growth.
Another barrier to employment is the fact that most employment is found through personal
contacts. This means it can be difficult for individuals to get their first position and gain job
experience, lack of job experience then limits job opportunities. One recommendation is to
create a placement agency that can vet potential candidates and verify certifications for
companies and individual engineers wanting to putt together teams.
The recently passed minimum wage does not seem to be an issue for the construction sector, as
market rates for nearly all positions are well above the minimum wage.


 The Market System for Corrugated Galvanised Iron (CGI) Sheet in HaitiPublished: February 2010Research, reports and studies

The capacity of the CGI market chain to provide for massively increased need is
a critical issue for the reconstruction process. This will focus on two questions regarding the CGI market system: 1.) Does the local market system have the capacity to meet the demand for CGI in greater Port au Prince?; and 2.) How do beneficiaries prefer to receive shelter assistance (in-kind materials, unconditional grants, etc.)


 The use and impact of ECD Kits: Post-earthquake Haiti 2010UNICEFPublished: September 2011Evaluation reports

This report aims to provide a better understanding of a specific niche response, the ECD response, in post-earthquake Haiti 2010. It concentrates on the UNICEF ECD Kit, a dominating ECD response, examining the efficiency, effectiveness, impact, relevance or appropriateness, sustainability and the overall quality of the kit and its use. A primary objective of this report is to identify the capacities and capacity gaps in the usage of the kit while an overarching focus examines the overall potential of the ECD Kit via such a mass distribution of the kits during the first phase of an emergency to assist the Ministry of Education (MoE), education authorities and relevant stakeholders to provide and include ECD during the first six months to a year of an initial response.


 Three Years on - Haiti Earthquake Response World VisionPublished: 2012Programme/project reviews

Our goal is not simply to return Haiti to pre-quake conditions but rather to build back stronger and more resilient. As always, children are at the centre of our plans. We have prioritised child well-being from the start, and we will continue to strive to see that all of Haiti’s children:
• enjoy good health
• are educated for life
• experience the love of God and their neighbours
• are cared for, protected and participating in their communities.
In late 2012, World Vision conducted an extensive end-of-programme evaluation, engaging nearly 1,500 adults and children, to measure the effectiveness of our earthquake response. These findings will guide the organisation’s continuing efforts to strengthen communities in Haiti – and help us respond to future emergencies with greater effectiveness.


 Together We Are Stronger - Final Report Published: January 2012Research, reports and studies
 Towards a collective funding platform for humanitarian crisesGroupe URDPublished: 1 September 2010Articles

Large­scale disasters like the Tsunami in Indonesia and the recent earthquake in Haiti have shown that extensive media coverage can lead to a strong public reaction and the raising of substantial private funds. Whereas in several other European countries non­governmental funding platforms have been set up to manage the funds raised, there is no consensus in France about the form that this should take. The absence of reflection about how these funds should be managed prior to the crises has led to some controversy, creating a great deal of confusion among the general public and the media. The present study compares the different mechanisms which exist in Europe in order to identify good practice and risks. This is done with a view to encouraging reflection about the possibility of creating a new “French” mechanism.


 Understanding Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in Urban Haiti CRS, Harvard UniversityPublished: 2014Research, reports and studies

This collaborative project between CRS Haiti and the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative supports individuals in the urban Haitian communities of Solino and Tesso in becoming resilient to recurring shocks and disasters. This research supports CRS in operationalizing a true “Neighborhood Approach” for reducing urban disaster risk in Solino and Tesso by empowering communities to take a leading role in their risk mitigation measures now and in the future. The primary objective of this research was to determine if baseline social cohesion in the communities of Solino and Tesso is associated with increased community participation and/or improved resilience at the beginning and end of the study period. A secondary objective was to understand how social cohesion impacts resilience and how various household and community features impact both social cohesion and resilience.

Results of this study indicate that social cohesion is a very strong predictor of community resilience. Further, there is a difference in mean social cohesion and mean resilience between the two communities, with Tesso having greater social cohesion but less resilience than Solino. Additionally, certain demographic variables, some of which vary by community, are more strongly associated with both social cohesion and resilience, indicating that demographic makeup of communities can have a large influence on community resilience and social cohesion.

The findings of this research suggest that by improving social cohesion in these neighborhoods, there will be a resulting increase in community resilience as well. Programs aimed at reducing disaster risk should understand the role that social cohesion and demographics of these communities play in building resilience


 UNICEF Global Evaluation Report Oversight System (GEROS) Review Template - Independent Review of UNICEF's Operational Response to the January 2010 Earthquake in HaitiUNICEFPublished: April 2012Programme/project reviews

The Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System (GEROS) has four main objectives:
- provide senior managers with a clear and short independent assessment of the quality and usefulness of individual evaluation reports, including those commissioned by their own offices;
- strengthen internal evaluation capacity by providing to commissioning offices feedback with practical recommendations on how to improve future evaluations. Commissioning offices can also use the feedback received to better assess the performance of external consultants to be hired for future evaluations.
- report on the quality of evaluations reports, by reviewing and assessing the quality of final evaluation reports commissioned by UNICEF Offices. Quality of evaluations reports is reported to senior management mainly through three channels: a) annual report of the EO Director to the Executive Board; b) the Global Evaluation Dashboard, and c) inclusion of this information in the Global Evaluation database;
- contribute to corporate knowledge management and organizational learning, by identifying evaluation reports of satisfactory quality to be used in meta-analysis to be shared within the organization, as well as facilitating internal and external sharing of satisfactory evaluations reports

This GEROS examines the Independent Review of UNICEF's Operational Response to the January 2010 Earthquake in Haiti


 UNOPS Haiti Operations Centre Inception ReportArupPublished: 15 November 2011Research, reports and studies

The 16/6 project is an initiative of the Government of Haiti (GoH) that aims to provide an
integrated response to the need for closing six camps created in Port-au-Prince after the
earthquake in January 2010. The 16/6 project is being implemented in partnership with UNOPS, the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO).

This report has been prepared by Arup International Development (Arup ID). This document is intended to capture key observations and recommendations arising from this mission in a format that can be shared with other key project stakeholders. Also the document is intended to highlight key areas where Arup ID can provide further assistance.

 Urban Disaster Response and Recovery Gender-sensitive Wash Programming in Post-earthquake HaitiOxfamPublished: 1 January 2014Tools, guidelines and methodologies

This paper highlights key lessons learned from emergency WASH programming in Haiti
following the earthquake. It also emphasizes Oxfam’s efforts to provide WASH assistance via a gender-sensitive approach. In addition, we hope that the paper will be a helpful tool for use
response to other large-scale, mainly urban disasters, particularly with regard to gender-sensitive approaches to emergency WASH assistance. The rest of the paper is structured as follows: first, it examines the links between the pre-earthquake WASH sector problems and humanitarian interventions following the earthquake. We then look at the long and short-term objectives of Oxfam’s intervention as well as at its design and implementation, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive programming. We explore the partnerships through which Oxfam implemented the programme, and some of the challenges faced. We discuss the lessons learned from the response, and conclude by looking at the post-earthquake prospects for gender-sensitive, equitable WASH systems.

 Urban disasters – lessons from Haiti: Study of member agencies’ responses to the earthquake in Port au Prince, Haiti, January 2010DECPublished: 1 March 2011Lessons papers

Haiti’s earthquake of 12th January 2010 killed over 220 000 people, injured 300 000, left well over one million homeless, and destroyed infrastructure, services and homes. The cost of reconstruction is estimated at US$11.5 billion1. This happened in a country already the poorest in the western hemisphere, ranked 149 out of 182 countries on the 2009 Human Development Index, with some 78% of its population living on under US$2 a day, and beset by huge societal inequality and weak governance.
While recognising the effects of the disaster on the whole country, this study is required to focus on the impact within urban areas, and to ask, what can be learnt for international NGOs for the next urban disaster? Several lessons emerge. A first one concerns increased urban risk globally, described by the World Bank in a new report2 as a ‘new game-changer.’ If this is right, and urban risk presents something different, then agencies need to learn ‘new rules of the game’ in urban post disaster response. Issues of complexity, range of actors, space, the importance of commerce and trade, services, infrastructure and sheer concentrations of people require a consideration of how to operate compared to rural contexts, including collaborations (with government and the private sector), the importance of cash based programmes (in cash for work but also in supporting petty vendors and businesses), markets (working with them and not unfairly competing) and housing (considering trade offs between short term shelter and long term settlements and thinking about forms of rental).
Building social and human capital is key, and in this response good programming approaches sought to do this in the relief stage, for example working with street food vendors to enhance food security. Some responses however tended to forget that cities contain readily available concentrations of skills and resources that, rather than being imported, might be found locally. Relief provided in camps sought to work through camp committees. Especially vulnerable people were often located and assisted, for example in the work of Age UK in the formation of a network of camp volunteers. The prolonged provision of services in camps however, such as water and healthcare, has been both expensive and has in some cases undermined pre-existing service providers who could not compete.


 Urban Governance and Disaster Risk Reduction in the Caribbean: the Experiences of Oxfam GBOxfamPublished: 2011Articles

The reality of supporting community-based urban disaster risk reduction is daunting. This paper provides a cross-cultural analysis of the experiences of Oxfam GB in supporting urban community-based disaster risk reduction in Haiti, Guyana and the Dominican Republic. The paper focuses on the efforts of Oxfam GB and its local partners to overcome the determining influence of local governance on who benefits from interventions, and the longevity of positive outcomes. The most successful projects built on strong pre-existing partnerships with buy-in from local and municipal government, promoted longevity in physical and social infrastructure through dual use investments that had an everyday as well as a disaster risk reduction purpose, and integrated technological and lay focus exercises to generate local participation as well as provide baselines for project planning. Overall, however, disaster risk reduction was constrained by a lack of vision and funding constraints, which prevented root causes in the wider urban and regional environment or political economy to be tackled.


 Urban Livelihoods RecoveryBritish Red Cross Society, Groupe URDPublished: October 2014After action & learning reviews

The earthquake that struck Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on 12 January 2010 led to the loss of more than 220,000 lives, over 310,000 injuries and extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure. Taking the British Red Cross recovery programme as a case study, this report presents a series of lessons on good practice in urban livelihoods recovery. The report, developed in partnership with Groupe URD, is a shortened version of an internal study of assessment, decision-making and management within the livelihoods component of the programme. It is part of a learning project that is helping to inform the programmes, training, technical guidelines, approaches and tools of the British Red Cross and its partners in urban areas. The lessons presented in the report will be of use to agencies working in Port-au-Prince, as well as to those implementing livelihoods recovery activities in other cities. The report focuses on the challenges and opportunities of cash transfers and micro-economic initiatives in urban areas. The analysis highlights the need for urban-specific approaches to assessment; programme design (including targeting); operational partnership; risk management; community engagement; and linking relief, recovery and development. While of primary relevance to partners in the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, the report will also be of interest to United Nations agencies, non-governmental organisations and donors.

 Urban WASH Lessons Learned from Post - Earthquake Response in HaitiOxfamPublished: 6 May 2011Evaluation reports

Large-scale urban WASH programming requires different approaches to those normally employed in Oxfam emergency response activities. This paper examines the lessons learned from the WASH response to the Haiti earthquake in January 2010. The paper also gives practical case studies of some of the success and failures from the WASH activities, undertaken in a very high-density urban/peri-urban context.

 Urban webinar #1: Responding to urban disasters: Learning from previous relief and recovery operationsALNAP, CENDEPPublished: February 2013Audio-visual material

Duration: 1 hour 4 minutes

Are you involved in planning and implementing relief and early recovery operations in urban areas? Are you working for an international agency, civil society organisation or national government agency ‘getting ready’ for your response to an urban disaster?

This webinar might be for you! Professor David Sanderson, one of the authors of our recently published ALNAP Lessons Paper ‘Responding to Urban Disasters: Learning from previous relief and recovery operations’(see document attached), will take you through the key lessons to consider when designing and implementing urban disaster-response programmes.

The presentation will focus on what we currently know about responding to earthquakes and floods in urban contexts using recent examples, such as the Typhoon Ketsana in the Philippines (2009), the Haiti earthquake of 2010 and the Northeast Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011.


 Urban webinar #3: Knowledge into action: British Red Cross' experiences going urbanALNAP, British Red Cross SocietyPublished: June 2013Audio-visual material

Duration: 1 hour 11 minutes

Urban areas are now a significant and growing centre of humanitarian concern. Operationally, urban areas challenge existing modes of response, requiring adaptation of existing ways of working, approaches and tools. Putting this knowledge into practice is the next step towards effectively responding to future humanitarian crises in urban areas. The British Red Cross is one of an increasing number of agencies who are taking the next step.

Over the last year the British Red Cross, as part of their Urban Learning Project, have identified a number of ways forward in enhancing the relevance, quality and impact of their work in urban areas: These include: sharpening context analysis and assessments, better understanding cash and markets, engaging and communicating with communities, adapting to the challenges of land and the built environment and engaging with urban systems and partnering with local groups and institutions.

We are delighted to have Ted Tuthill, Recovery Operations Manager at the British Red Cross, presenting his organisation’s experience of putting their urban agenda into action. Ted will be looking at both the operational as well as the institutional level to explain how the findings from BRC’s Urban Learning Project are being incorporated into current and future programmes and training and learning. He will draw on one of the British Red Cross’ operational contexts, Port-au-Prince in Haiti, to show how their operations have had to adapt to the challenges of humanitarian action in urban areas.

Presenter: Ted Tuthill (British Red Cross)

Panellist: Paul Knox Clarke (ALNAP)



Cet article publié par la revue Urbanités revient sur la reconstruction de Port au Prince après le séisme de 2010. L'auteur appelle à une plus grande adaptation des professionnels de l'humanitaire et du dévelopement face aux risques particuliers et plus complexes rencontrés dans les milieux urbains. 


 Voice Out Loud Issue 12: Haiti: The NGO PerspectiveNGO VoicePublished: October 2010Articles

2010 will be remembered for the enormous natural disasters that struck Haiti and Pakistan. On January 12, a large earthquake hit Haiti, killing over 200,000 people. In July, persistent rains led to the flooding of one third of Pakistan. Both disasters are characterised by challenges in terms of logistics, coordination, access, security and timely funding. While media attention to Haiti has diminished, it is clear that the needs are still great. Ten months after the quake this newsletter looks back on the Haiti experience to date.

Many humanitarian NGOs, including many VOICE members, were already working in Haiti; a challenging environment even before the disaster took place. Such NGOs, with teams and partners in place and knowledge of the Haiti context, were amongst the first actors to respond. Today, they continue to be in the frontline of response to this crisis. Several contributors to this newsletter share good practices on how to engage disaster-affected people in the response to emergencies. The drive to constantly seek improved quality and accountability also emerges as a key theme.


 We have too little data to know how to help countries like Nepal recover from natural disasters Center for Refugee and Disaster ResponsePublished: 1 May 2015Articles

In the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquake, in this Washington Post article Dr. Thomas D. Kirscher of the Centre for Refugee and Disaster Response outlines his argument for why we need evidence-based disaster response, looking at the lessons learned from Haiti. 


 WFP's Operational Relationship with NGOs and National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies IFRC, NGO Voice, WFPPublished: 2011Evaluation reports

2010 was a challenging year for the World Food programme, with 263 million people
affected by natural disasters – 110 million more than in 2004, the year of one of the
most destructive tsunamis in history. This report provides the information how the World Food Programme manage to meet these challenges and implement new tools, programmes and solutions.



 World Vision Haiti Earthquake Response: Information Provision GuidelinesWorld VisionPublished: 2013Tools, guidelines and methodologies

World Vision Haiti Earthquake Response is committed to ensuring beneficiary communities and
other key stakeholders are informed about its projects. Greater transparency with our key
stakeholders strengthens our relationship with them and enables us to improve what we do. The right information provision strategies can build trust with relevant stakeholders and is the foundation for greater accountability in our program. A step-by-step approach is outlined in these guidelines led by the question ‘what do our key stakeholders need and want to know

 Years After Haiti Quake, Safe Housing Is a Dream for Many - The New York Times, Aug 15, 2012Published: 15 August 2012Articles

Two and a half years after the earthquake, despite billions of dollars in reconstruction aid, the most obvious, pressing need — safe, stable housing for all displaced people — remains unmet.


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