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The Missing Link in Sanitation Service Delivery

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities


About this resource

Keywords:Government, National & regional actors, Urban, Urban design/planning, Water and sanitation
Agency:Water and Sanitation Program - WSP
Date published:April 2014

Globally, the great majority of urban dwellers, especially poor
people, rely for their sanitation on non-sewered systems that
generate a mix of solid and liquid wastes generally termed
“fecal sludge.” In poor and rapidly expanding cities, fecal
sludge management (FSM) represents a growing challenge,
generating significant negative public health and environmental
risks. Without proper management, fecal sludge is
often allowed to accumulate in poorly designed pits, is discharged
into storm drains and open water, or is dumped into
waterways, wasteland, and unsanitary dumping sites. This
study seeks to assess the extent of this issue, and the major
constraints that need to be overcome to improve fecal sludge

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